SST and History Notes XI- XII

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Wednesday, 10 August 2022

HISTORY-(XII)-THEME-8 PEASANTS, ZAMINDARS AND THE STATE (LESSON NOTES)

  • HISTORY-(XII)-THEME-8

    PEASANTS, ZAMINDARS AND THE STATE

    AGRARIAN SOCIETY AND THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

    (LESSON NOTES)


    v INTRODUCTION:

    Ø During 16th -17th century nearly 85% people lived in village and involved in the agricultural activity.

    Ø Here peasants and landowners both involved in production and they claim on their shares. These created relationships of cooperation, competition and conflict among them.

    Ø Mughal empire derived their bulk of income from agriculture production. So the agents of the state entered in this agrarian society as revenue assessors, collectors, record keepers to ensure that cultivation took place and the state got its regular revenue.


    Ø It also creates the link between village and towns as crops were grown for sale, trade, money and markets.

    Ø In this lesson we will try to know about agrarian society through different sources.

    v RURAL or COUNTRYSIDE AREAS

    Ø Rural areas were mostly inhabited by the peasants who performed the agricultural work such as tilling the soil, sowing seeds, weeding, harvesting etc. They also provide labour for agro-based goods as sugar, oil etc.

    Ø Some areas were not suitable for agriculture as dry regions and hilly areas.

    Ø Many parts of the rural areas are also covered with forest.

Friday, 10 June 2022

GEO (VII)-LESSON-7 HUMAN ENVIRONMENT-SETTLEMENT,TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION (LESSON NOTES)

  •  

GEO (VII)-LESSON-7

  • HUMAN ENVIRONMENT-SETTLEMENT,TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

    (LESSON NOTES)

    __________________________________________________________

    v INTRODUCTION:

    Ø As we know that human beings are dependent on the nature for their needs as food, clothes, shelters etc.

    Ø But with time they learnt new skills to grow food, build homes and develop better means of transport and communication.

    Ø In this way they modified the environment where they lived, that refers as Human environment.

    Ø In this lesson we will read about settlement, transport and communication in human environment.

    v HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

    Ø Settlements are places where people build their homes and settle there.

    Ø Earlier settlements grew near the river valleys as the water was easily available and the land was fertile.

    Ø As we know earliest civilizations flourished along the bank of these rivers as Indus, Tigris, Nile and Hwang-He.



    v TYPES OF SETTLEMENTS

Thursday, 9 June 2022

SPL (VII)-LESSON-6 UNDERSTANDING MEDIA (LESSON NOTES)

  •  

SPL (VII)-LESSON-6

  • UNDERSTANDING MEDIA

    (LESSON NOTES)

    __________________________________________________________

    v MEDIA: -

    Ø Media is the plural form of the word ‘medium’ and it describes the various ways through which we communicate in society.

    Ø It refers to all means of communication, from a phone call to the evening news on TV can be called media. TV, radio, and newspapers are forms of media.

    v CLASSIFICATION OF MEDIA

    Ø Print Media: -Newspaper, slogan, Magazine, Books Etc.

    Ø Electronic media: Tv, Radia, Computer, Internet, Etc.


    Ø Personal media: Mobile, Books, Etc.

Wednesday, 8 June 2022

GEOGRAPHY (VI)-LESSON-8 INDIA: CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE (LESSON NOTES)

GEOGRAPHY (VI)-LESSON-8

INDIA: CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE

(LESSON NOTES)

  • __________________________________________________________

    v WEATHER:

    Ø Day today changes in the atmospheric conditions in a short period of times is refereed as weather.

    Ø It includes changes in temperature, rainfall and sunshine etc.

    Ø For example, as such it may be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm.

    v MAJOR SEASONS IN INDIA:

    Ø COLD WEATHER SEASON OR WINTER

    §  During the winter season, cool, dry winds blow from North to the South. It lies in between December to February.

    §  The sunrays do not fall directly in the region.

    Ø HOT WEATHER SEASON OR SUMMER

    §  It started from April till June. The sunrays more or less directly fall in this region.

    §  Hot and dry winds are called loo.


    Ø SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON OR RAINY SEASON

Saturday, 28 May 2022

DP (IX)-LESSON-3 ELECTROL POLITICS (LESSON NOTES)

DP (IX)-LESSON-3

  • ELECTROL POLITICS

    (LESSON NOTES)

    __________________________________________________________

    v INTRODUCTION

    Ø In a democracy, people do not govern directly. They govern through the elected- representatives.

    Ø Governing through elected representatives is the most common form of democracy.

    Ø Electoral politics is all about understanding election of representatives, need of elections and how to make election democratic.

    Ø It also involves examining the role of the election commission in ensuring free and fair elections.

    v ELECTIONS

    Ø The mechanism or procedure by which people choose their representatives at regular intervals is called election.


    v PROCEDURE OF ELECTIONS
    The procedure of election can be understood by the real example of Haryana Assembly elections. It will show how candidates standing in election become representatives and how power can be removed from their hands.

Wednesday, 18 May 2022

GEOGRAPHY (IX)-LESSON-4 CLIMATE (QUESTION ANSWERS)

 

GEOGRAPHY (IX)-LESSON-4

CLIMATE

(QUESTION ANSWERS)

____________________________________________________________

NCERT EXERCISE

1. Choose the correct answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following places receives the highest rainfall in the world?

(a) Silchar

(b) Mawsynram

(c) Cherrapunji

(d) Guwahati

Answer: Mawsynram

(ii) The wind blowing in the northern plains in summers is known as:

(a) Kaal Baisakhi

(b) Loo

(c) Trade Winds

(d) None of the above

Answer: Loo

(iii) Which one of the following causes rainfall during winters in the north-western part of India?

(a) Cyclonic depression

(b) Retreating monsoon

(c) Western disturbances

(d) Southwest monsoon

Answer: Western disturbances

(iv) Monsoon arrives in India approximately in:

(a) Early May

(b) Early July

(c) Early June

(d) Early August

Answer: Early June

(v) Which one of the following characterises the cold-weather season in India?

(a) Warm days and warm nights

(b) Warm days and cold nights

(c) Cool days and cold nights

(d) Cold days and warm nights

Answer: Warm days and cold nights.

2. Answer the following questions briefly.

Tuesday, 17 May 2022

GEOGRAPHY (IX)-LESSON-3 DRAINAGE ( QUESTION ANSWERS)

 

GEOGRAPHY (IX)-LESSON-3

DRAINAGE

( QUESTION ANSWERS)

______________________________________________________________

(NCERT EXERCISE)

 1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) In which of the following states is the Wular lake located?

(a) Rajasthan (b) Punjab (c) Uttar Pradesh (d) Jammu and Kashmir

Answer: Jammu and Kashmir.

(ii) The river Narmada has its source at

(a) Satpura (b) Amarkantak (c) Brahmagiri (d) Slopes of the Western Ghat.

Answer: Amarkantak

(iii) Which one of the following lakes is a saltwater lake?

(a) Sambhar (b) Wular (c) Dal (d) Gobind Sagar

Answer: Sambhar

(iv) Which one of the following is the longest river in Peninsular India?

(a) Narmada (b) Godavari (c) Krishna (d) Mahanadi

Answer: Godavari

(v) Which one amongst the following rivers flows through a rift valley?

(a) Mahanadi (b) Krishna (c) Tungabhadra (d) Tapi

Answer: Tapi

2. Answer the following  briefly.

(i) What is meant by a water divide? Give an example.

Answer: Any elevated area, such as a mountain or an upland, separates two drainage basins. Such an upland is known as a water divide. For example, the water divide between the Indus and the Ganga river systems.

(ii) Which is the largest river basin in India?

Sunday, 15 May 2022

GEOGRAPHY (IX)-LESSON-4 CLIMATE (LESSON NOTES)

                                             GEOGRAPHY (IX)-LESSON-4

CLIMATE

(LESSON NOTES)

____________________________________________________________

v INTRODUCTION

  Ø There are three basic elements to know about the natural environment of any area as landforms, drainage and climate.

  Ø In this lesson we will know about the climate of India.

v CLIMATE AND WEATHER

WEATHER

CLIMATE

The atmospheric condition of any area in a point of time is referred as weather.

Climate refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area.

It is measured as point of time.

It is measured over a long period of time (30 years average)

Example- Sunny day, cloudy day, calm day

Example-moderate climate, extreme climate,


v ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE AND WEATHER

  Ø The elements of climate and weather are same as: -

§  Temperature

§  Humidity

§  Air pressure

§  Cloudiness or sunshine

§  Precipitation (Rainfall or snowfall)

§  Wind

  Ø As we know that the weather conditions fluctuate very often within a day. Based on the generalized atmospheric conditions, the year is divided into seasons such as winter, summer and rainy seasons.

  Ø The world is divided into a number of climatic regions. In Asia, India and other South and South-Eastern countries have monsoon type of climate.

v MONSOON

  Ø The word monsoon is derived from the Arabic word ‘mausim’ which literally means season. ‘Monsoon’ refers to the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year.

v REGIONAL CLIMATIC VARIATION IN INDIA

  Ø Although there is an overall unity in the general climatic pattern in India, there are some perceptible regional variations. We will see the variation by taking two elements: -

  Ø TEMPERATURE

§  The temperature in the winter in North-Western mountainous regions can go down to – 45° C (at Drass in Jammu and Kashmir), while it is 22°C in Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala.

§  Similarly, it can go up to 50°C in summer in some parts of Western Rajasthan and 20°C in Shillong.

§  In many areas, there is a wide variation between day and night temperatures. In the Thar Desert, the day temperature may rise up to 50°C and drop down to near 15°C the same night. On the other hand, there is hardly any difference in day and night temperatures in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands or in Kerala.

  Ø PRECIPITATION

§  There is a wide variation observed in its amount and seasonal distribution. The annual precipitation varies from over 400 cm in Meghalaya to less than 10 cm in Ladakh and Western Rajasthan.

§  Precipitation in the form of snowfall occurs only in upper parts of Himalayas, the rest of the country receives rainfall.

§  Most parts of the country receive rainfall from June to September, but the Tamil Nadu coast gets most of its rain during October and November.

  Ø CONCLUSION

§  By these variations we can see that Coastal regions experience mild temperature compare to the interior regions.

§  The rainfall also decreases from East to West.

§  Such differences help to create a variety in lives of people— the food they eat, the clothes they wear, the kind of houses they used for living and so on.

v CLIMATIC CONTROLS

  Ø Permanent factors which govern the general nature of the climate of any location on the earth are called factors of Climatic Controls. There are six major controls of the climate of any place.

§  Latitude: - Due to the curvature of the earth, latitude changes the amount of solar energy received. As a result, temperature decreases from the equator towards the poles.

§  Altitude: -It refers to the height above mean sea level. With increase of height from the earth surface, the temperature decreases and air becomes less dense. Therefore, hilly regions are cooler in summer.


HISTORY-(XII)-THEME-8 PEASANTS, ZAMINDARS AND THE STATE (LESSON NOTES)

HISTORY-(XII)-THEME-8 PEASANTS, ZAMINDARS AND THE STATE AGRARIAN SOCIETY AND THE MUGHAL EMPIRE (LESSON NOTES) v INTRODUCTION:...