SST and History Notes XI- XII

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Wednesday, 5 January 2022

HISTORY (XI)- LESSON -7 CHANGING CULTURAL TRADITIONS (QUESTION ANSWERS)

 

HISTORY (XI)- LESSON -7

CHANGING CULTURAL TRADITIONS

 QUESTION ANSWERS

________________________________________________________________

 

 NCERT TEXTBOOK  SOLUTION


 1. Which elements of Greek and Roman culture were revived in the 14th and 15th centuries ?
Answer: The religious, artistic and literary elements of Greek and Roman culture were revived in the 14th and 15th centuries.

 

 2. Compare details of Italian architecture of this period with Islamic architecture.
Answer: Following are the points of comparison:

·        Huge buildings were constructed under both the Italian and the Islamic architectures.

·        Decoration was prominent in both the styles.

·        Arch and pillars were the important characteristics of both the Italian and the Islamic architectures.

·           Beautiful cathedrals and monasteries were constructed in Italian architecture, whereas large and magnificent mosques were constructed under the Islamic style of architecture.

 

 3. Why were Italian towns the first to experience the ideas of humanism?
Answer: The towns of Italy were the first to experience the ideas of humanism because of the following reasons:

·        Education spread in Italy by the 13th and 14th centuries.

·        Humanism as a subject was first taught in Italian schools, colleges and universities. Italian people were made aware of humanist views and ideas.

·        Universities were first of all developed here to spread education.

·        A number of classical books were composed by Roman and Greek scholars.

 

HISTORY (XI)- LESSON 9 THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (QUESTION ANSWERS)

 

HISTORY (XI)- LESSON 9

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

QUESTION ANSWERS

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NCERT SOLUTIONS


1. How did Britain’s involvement in wars from 1793 to 1815 affect British industries?
Answer: Both Britain and France were at war between 1793 to 1815. The industries of Britain were badly affected with this war. That is why Britain was unable to get capital formation and reinvestment during war period. It had to use borrowed capital to fight rather than reinvestment. Due to war, factories were shut down. Trade declined. The prices of essential commodities were very high. So, this war affected British industries in many ways.

 

 2. What were the relative advantages of canal and railway transportation?
Answer: Advantages of Canal Transportation: It was the cheapest mode of transportation. It was made easier to transport heavier goods from mines to factories. When big cities and towns were linked to these canals, the city people were able to get various essential commodities such as coal and tool items at cheaper rate.
Advantages of Rail Transportation: The use of railways helped in increasing the production of coal and iron industry. It also did a lot of help. Railways helped in carrying heavy goods through various regions of the country.

 

 3. What were the interesting features of the inventions of this period?
Answer:
The interesting features of the inventions of this period are as follows:

·        At first, Abraham Darby brought about a revolution in the metallurgical industry.

·        Henry Cort (1740-1823) designed the puddling furnace and rolling mill to roll purified iron into bars.

·        In the 1770s, John Wilkinson made the first iron chairs, vats for breweries and iron pipes of all sizes.

·        John Kay made the flying shuttle loom in 1733. It made possible to weave broader fabrics in less time.

·        Edmund Cartwright invented power loom in 1787.

·        Thomas Savery built a model steam engine called the Miner’s friend in 1698 to drain mines.

·        James Watt developed a steam engine in 1769 that converted the steam engine from a pump into a ‘prime mover’.

 4. Indicate how the supply of raw materials affected the nature of British industrialization.
Answer:
Since 17th century, Britain had been importing bales of cotton cloth from India at exorbitant price. But after the entry of East India Company into India, it began to import along with cloth, raw cotton, which could be spun and woven into cloth in England. Till the early 18th century, the process of spinning had been very slow. The spinners were occupied throughout the day, while weavers waited idly to receive yarn. A lot of technological inventions closed the gap between the speed in spinning raw cotton into yarn, and weaving the yarn into fabric. The production shifted from the homes of spinners and weavers to factories.

 

Wednesday, 17 November 2021

SPL (VIII)- LESSON-6 UNDERSTANDING CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM ( QUESTION ANSWERS)

 

SPL (VIII)- LESSON-6

UNDERSTANDING CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

( QUESTION ANSWERS)

__________________________________________________________

 

(NCERT QUESTIONS)

1. In a town called Peace Land, the supporters of the Fiesta football team learn that the supporters of the Jubilee football team in the nearby city about 40 km away have damaged the ground on which the Final between both teams is to be held the following day. A crowd of Fiesta fans armed with deadly weapons attacks the homes of the supporters of the Jubilee football team in the town. In the attack, 10 men are killed, 5 women are gravely hurt, many homes are destroyed and over 50 people injured.

Imagine that you and your classmates are now part of the criminal justice system. First divide the class into the following four groups of persons:

1. Police 2. Public Prosecutor 3. Defence lawyer 4. Judge

Roles

Functions

Police

hear the witnesses

record the statements of witnesses

cross examine the witnesses

take photographs of burnt homes

record the evidence

arrest the Fiesta fans

writes the judgment

argue the case for the victims

decide the number of years for which the accused will be put in jail

examine the witnesses in court

pass the judgment

get the assaulted women medically examined

conduct a fair trial

meet the accused persons

Public Prosecutor

Defense Lawyer

Judge

The column on the right provides a list of functions. Match these with the roles that are listed on the left. Have each group pick the functions that it needs to perform to bring justice to those who were affected by the violence of the Fiesta fans. In what order, will these functions be performed?

Now take the same situation but ask one student who is a supporter of the Fiesta Club to perform all the functions listed above. Do you think the victims would get justice if only one person performed all of the functions of the criminal justice system? Why not?

State two reasons why you believe that different persons need to play different roles as part of the criminal justice system.

Answer

Role

Functions

Police

Records the statements of witnesses

Takes photographs of burnt homes

Arrests the Fiesta fans

Gets the assaulted women medically examined

Public Prosecutor

Cross examines the witnesses

Argues the case for the victims

Defence Lawyer

Meets the accused persons

Examines the witnesses in court

Judge

Hears the witnesses

Records the evidence

Writes the judgement

Decides for how many years the accused will be put in jail

Passes the judgement

Conducts a fair trial

The victim would not get justice if only one person performs all the functions of the criminal justice system, because he could get influenced by various prejudices. Separation of power is necessary within a judicial system too, since absolute power can lead to unfairness.

Two reasons why different people need to play different roles as part of the criminal justice system are:

1.    All the aspects of trial and investigation cannot be conducted by a single person, as it entails a diverse range of work including arresting, recording the statements of witnesses, defending the victim and accused parties, passing a fair trial and judicially correct judgement.

2.    If all the powers are vested on one person alone, it might be misused and thereby violate the laws based on just and equal decision.

A single ideology may not be the right one, as it can affect the trial and the result of the case.

 

HISTORY (VIII)- LESSON-6 WEAVERS, IRON SMELTERS AND FACTORY OWNERS (QUESTION ANSWERS

 

 

HISTORY (VIII)- LESSON-6

WEAVERS, IRON SMELTERS AND FACTORY OWNERS

(QUESTION ANSWERS

 

 

 

(NCERT QUESTION ANSWERS)

1. What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?

ANS . Cotton and Silk had a large market in Europe. Different varieties of Indian textiles were sold in European markets:

a.     Chintz

b.    Cossaes or Khasa

c.     Bandanna

d.    Jamdani

Indian printed cotton textiles were also famous in England for their exquisite floral designs, fine textures and inexpensiveness.

2. What is jamdani?

Answer.

Jamdani is a fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on the loom, typically in grey and white. Often a mixture of cotton and gold thread was used, as in the cloth in this picture. The most important centres of jamdani weaving were Dacca in Bengal and Lucknow in the United Provinces.

3. What is bandanna?

Answer.

Bandannas are any brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. Originally, the term derived from the word “bandhna” (Hindi for tying) and referred to a variety of brightly coloured cloth produced through a method of tying and dying.

4. Who are the Agaria?

Answer.

A group of men and women forming a community of iron smelters.

5. Fill in the blanks:

(a) The word chintz comes from the word _________.

(b) Tipu’s sword was made of_________ steel.

(c) India’s textile exports declined in the _________ century.

Answer.

(a) The word chintz comes from the word chhint.

(b) Tipu’s sword was made of wootz steel.

(c) India’s textile exports declined in the nineteenth century.

HISTORY (XI) LESSON-6 THE THREE ORDERS MCQS

 

HISTORY (XI)

LESSON-6

THE THREE ORDERS

MCQS

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1. Monks who moved from one place to another, preaching to the people and living on charity. These monks were known as ______
(a) Manor
(b) Friars
(c) Tithe
(d) Serfs

2. We see the rise of absolute monarchy in Europe in the


(a) 15th & 16th centuries

(b) 13th & 14th centuries
(c) 12th & 13th centuries
(d) 16th & 17th centuries
 
3. There was a growing uncertainty about the value and purpose of monasticism by the
(a) thirteenth century
(b) fourteenth century
(c) fifteenth century
(d) sixteenth-century
 
4. What were Cathedral towns?
(a) Towns developed around plains
(b) Towns developed around Churches
(c) Towns developed around industries
(d) Towns developed around Capital
 
5. The land granted by the lord to the knights was called:
(a) Fief
(b) Feud
(c) Seigneur
(d) Manor
 
6. A guild was an association of
(a) monks
(b) farmers
(c) craft and industry
(d) lords
 
7. The king who was declared the Holy Roman Emperor was
(a) Charlemagne
(b) Louis I
(c) Louis II
(d) Louis III
 
8. The first king who was declared the ‘Holy Roman Emperor’ was
(a) Charlemagne
(b) Louis I
(c) Louis II
(d) Louis III
 
9. One of the gradual changes that affected the social and economic ties between the lords and the vassals was
(a) agricultural technology
(b) environment
(c) land use
(d) new towns
 
10. Who was William I?
(a) Duke of Normandy
(b) Duke of Exeter
(c) Duke of Somerset
(d) Duke of Darlington
 
11. According to French priests, the basis of classification among the three orders was
(a) education
(b) race
(c) wealth
(d) nature of work
 
12. Fertile land was known as _____
(a) Franks
(b) Gaul
(c) Manor
(d) Fief

13. The knight was given a piece of land by the lord. This piece of land was called _______


(a) Franks

(b) Toll
(c) Manor
(d) Fief
 
14. The Church was given the right to take one-tenth of the total produce of the peasant over the course of a year which was called a _____
(a) Taille
(b) Toll
(c) Tithe
(d) Franks
15. Monks who moved from one place to another, preaching to the people and living  on charity. These monks were known as ______
(a) Manor
(b) Friars
(c) Tithe
(d) Serfs
 
16. We see the rise of absolute monarchy in Europe in the
(a) 15th & 16th centuries
(b) 13th & 14th centuries
(c) 12th & 13th centuries
(d) 16th & 17th centuries
 
17. There was a growing uncertainty about the value and purpose of monasticism by the
(a) thirteenth century
(b) fourteenth century
(c) fifteenth century
(d) sixteenth-century
 
18. What were Cathedral towns?
(a) Towns developed around plains
(b) Towns developed around Churches
(c) Towns developed around industries
(d) Towns developed around Capital
 
19. The land granted by the lord to the knights was called:
(a) Fief
(b) Feud
(c) Seigneur
(d) Manor
 
20. Feudalism is a German word ‘feud’, which means ------------------------.
(a) Gold
(b) Piece of cloth
 (c) Piece of Land
(d) Temple
 
21. Feudalism originated in ---------------------.
 
(a)Germany
(b)                    France
(c)Britain
(d)                    Italy
 
22. Social organisation centred on the -------------------.
 
(a)      Control of land
(b)                    Control of Power
(c)      Control of Trade
(d)                    Control of Gold
 
23. In an economic sense, feudalism refers to a kind of agricultural production which is based on V K Vinod the relationship between lords and -------------------------.
 
(a)       Kings
(b)                    Ministers
(c)      Peasants
(d)                    Merchants
 
24. Feudalism’s features were derived from both imperial Roman traditions and ----------customs.
 
(a)       British
(b)                    Italian
(c)        French
(d)                    German
 
25. In Feudalism Lords in exchange provided------------- protection to peasants.
 
(a)       Financial
(b)                    Moral
(c)      Social
(d)                    Military
 
26. Marc Bloch emphasised the importance of ------------ in shaping human history.
 
(a)       History
(b)                    Politics
(c)       Geography
(d)                    Language
 
27. ---------------------was old name of France.
 
(a)       Mesopotamia
(b)                    Gaul
(c)      Gibralter
(d)                    Ceylon
 
28. The Franks, a Germanic tribe, gave their name to Gaul, making it ---------------------.
 
(a)      Germany
(b)                    Finland
(c)       Fiji
(d)                    France
 
29. Feudalism developed in England from the ---------------------- century.
 
(a)     12th
(b)                    10th
(c)     15th
(d)                    11th
 
30. Priests have their own ----------------------.
 
(a)       Temples
(b)                    Gold
(c)         Lands
(d)                    Titles
 
31. ‘Abbey’ is derived from the ------------ abba, meaning father.
 
(a)       Armenian
(b)                    Latin
(c)        Syriac
(d)                    Urdu
 
32. In Benedictine monasteries, there was a manuscript with ----- chapters of rules which were followed by monks for many centuries.
 
(a)      43
(b)                    53
(c)      63
(d)                    73
 
33. Christmas (Christ’s birth) and Easter (the crucifixion of Christ and his rising from the dead) became important dates from the --------------- century.
 
(a)Fourth
(b)      Third
(c)Second
(d)      Fifth
 
34. The ------ is top in vassalage system.
 
(a)          Queen
(b)                    Land – Lord
(c)         King
(d)                    Priest
 
35. A manorial estate contain ----- to -------------- families.
 
(a)      12 to 60
(b)                    50 to 100
(c)       100 to 150
(d)                    200 to 300
 
36. The lord gave the knight a piece of land called ------- and promised to protect it.
 
(a)     Fief
(b)                    Dief
(c)       Lief
(d)                    Gief
 
37. By the ------ th century, Instead of the wooden ploughs, cultivators began using heavy iron-tipped ploughs and mould-boards.
 
(a)      12th
(b)                    14th
(c)       11th
(d)                    9th
 
38. By the 11th century Agriculture Switch from a two-field to a ----------field system.
 
(a)       Four
(b)                    Five
(c)       Three
(d)                    One
 
39. Peasants could use a field two years out of ------ if they planted it with one crop in  autumn and a different crop in spring a year and a half later.
 
(a)       Four
(b)                    Five
(c)       Three
(d)                    Six
 
40. From the 11 th century, the -------------- that had been the basis of feudalism were weakening.
 
(a)        Loyalty
(b)                    Personal bonds
(c)       Roots
(d)                    Commitment
 
41. Lords found it convenient to ask for rent in -------------, not services.
 
(a)       Cash
(b)                    Gold
(c)       Silver
(d)                    Land
 
42. In England, agricultural prices ----------- between the 1270s and the 1320s.
 
(a)       Reduced
(b)                    Stable
(c)       Down
(d)                    Doubled
 
43. From roughly 42 million in 1000, Europe’s population stood at 62 million around 1200 and 73 million in ------------.
 
(a)        1300
(b)                    1400
(c)        1500
(d)                    1600
 
44. By the 13th century in Europe the bigger towns had populations of about ------------.
 
(a)        50,000
(b)                    60,000
(c)       30,000
(d)                    40,000
 
45. The ‘guild----------’ was a feature of every town.
 
(a)       Ground
(b)                    Hall
(c)       Temple
(d)                    Palace
 
46. Cathedrals are large Churches built in ---------------.
 
(a)       Germany
(b)                    France
(c)      Belgium
(d)                    Italy
 
47. Famines hit Europe between 1315 and -------------.
 
(a)      1316
(b)                    1318
(c)        1319
(d)                    1317
 
48. In Feudal Europe Massive cattle deaths in the -----------------------.
 
(a)      1330s
(b)                    1340s
(c)          1320s
(d)                    1350s
 
49. Due to different natural calamities ---- per cent of the people of the whole of Europ died.
 
(a)       30
(b)                    20
(c)        40
(d)                    50
 
50. Trade was hit by a severe shortage of ------------------------- money.
 
(a)            Plastic
(b)                    Gold
(c)        Metal
(d)                    Paper
 
51. The word ‘monastery’ is derived from the Greek word ‘-----------------’ meaning  someone who lives alone.
 
(a)        Monas
(b)                    Manes
(c)       Manoos
(d)                    Monos
 
52.Well-known monasteries were those established by St Benedict in ------in 529 and of Cluny in Burgundy in 910.
 
(a)          Italy
(b)                    Germany
(c)          France
(d)                    Belgium
ANSWERS

1

B

11

D

21

B

31

C

41

A

2

A

12

C

22

A

32

D

42

D

3

B

13

D

23

C

33

A

43

A

4

B

14

C

24

D

34

C

44

C

5

A

15

B

25

D

35

A

45

B

6

C

16

A

26

C

36

A

46

B

7

A

17

B

27

B

37

C

47

D

8

A

18

B

28

D

38

C

48

C

9

B

19

A

29

D

39

C

49

B

10

A

20

C

30

C

40

B

50

C

HISTORY (XI)- LESSON -7 CHANGING CULTURAL TRADITIONS (QUESTION ANSWERS)

  HISTORY (XI)- LESSON -7 CHANGING CULTURAL TRADITIONS   QUESTION ANSWERS ____________________________________________________________...