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Wednesday, 8 June 2022

GEOGRAPHY (VI)-LESSON-8 INDIA: CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE (LESSON NOTES)

GEOGRAPHY (VI)-LESSON-8

INDIA: CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE

(LESSON NOTES)

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    v WEATHER:

    Ø Day today changes in the atmospheric conditions in a short period of times is refereed as weather.

    Ø It includes changes in temperature, rainfall and sunshine etc.

    Ø For example, as such it may be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm.

    v MAJOR SEASONS IN INDIA:

    Ø COLD WEATHER SEASON OR WINTER

    §  During the winter season, cool, dry winds blow from North to the South. It lies in between December to February.

    §  The sunrays do not fall directly in the region.

    Ø HOT WEATHER SEASON OR SUMMER

    §  It started from April till June. The sunrays more or less directly fall in this region.

    §  Hot and dry winds are called loo.


    Ø SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON OR RAINY SEASON

    §  The winds blow from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal toward the land. So called as South west winds.

    §  It lies in between July to September.

    §  90 % rainfall occurs in this seasons in our country.

    Ø SEASON OF RETREATING MONSOON OR AUTUMN

    §  Winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal.

    §  The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.

    v CLIMATE:

    Ø The average weather condition, of a particular place for a long period of time is referred as climate.

    Ø For example, extreme climate, moderate, monsoon climate.

    Ø India’s climate is referred Monsoon types of climates. Monsoon is taken from the Arabic word ‘mausim’, which means seasons.

    Ø The climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea and relief.

    v REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN THE CLIMATE OF INDIA.

    Ø Jaisalmer and Bikaner in the desert of Rajasthan are very hot, while Drass and Kargil in Jammu and Kashmir are freezing cold.

    Ø Coastal places like Mumbai and Kolkata experience moderate climate. They are neither too hot nor too cold.

    Ø Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the world’s highest rainfall, while in a particular year it might not rain at all in Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.

    v NATURAL VEGETATION

    Ø The grasses, shrubs and trees, which grow on their own without interference or help from human beings are called natural vegetation. The vegetation of India can be divided into five types-

    §  Tropical evergreen forest

    §  Tropical deciduous forest

    §  Thorny bushes

    §  Mountain vegetation

    §  Mangrove forests.

    v TROPICAL RAIN FOREST

    Ø They are found in the areas which receive heavy rainfall.

    Ø Many species of trees are found in this forest, they shed their leaves at different times of the year. They are called evergreen forests.

    Ø Important trees are mahogany, ebony and rosewood.

    v TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FOREST

    Ø They are also called monsoon forests.

    Ø Trees of these forests shed their leaves at a particular time of the year.

    Ø Important trees are sal, teak, peepal, neem and shisham.

    v THORNY BUSHES

    Ø They are found in dry areas of the country.

    Ø The leaves are in the form of spines to reduce the loss of water.

    Ø Important trees are cactus, Kaner, babool, keekar, etc.

    v MOUNTAIN VEGETATION

    Ø At a height between 1500 metres and 2500 metres, most of the trees are conical in shape. These trees are called coniferous trees.

    Ø Important trees are chir, pine and deodar.


    v MANGROVE FORESTS

    Ø These forests can survive in saline water.

    Ø Sundari is a well-known species of trees.

    Ø Mangrove forests are found in Sunderban in West Bengal and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

    v IMPORTANCE OF FOREST

    Ø Forests are very useful for all living beings.

    Ø They are the natural habitat of wildlife.


    Ø Plants release oxygen that we breathe and absorb carbon dioxide.

    Ø The roots of the plants bind the soil. Thus, they control soil erosion.

    Ø Forests provide us with timber for furniture, fuel wood, fodder, medicinal plants and herbs, lac, honey, gum, etc.

    v CONSERVATATION OF FOREST:

    Ø Natural vegetation has been destroyed to a large extent because of the reckless cutting of trees.

    Ø We should plant more trees and protect the existing ones and make people aware of the importance of trees.

    Ø We can have special programmes like Van Mahotsav to involve more people in making our earth Green.

    v WILDLIFE:

    Ø There are thousands of species of animals and a large variety of reptiles, amphibians, mammals, birds, insects and worms which dwell in the forest.

    Ø The tiger is our national animal.

    Ø Gir forest of Gujarat is the home of Asiatic lions.


    Ø Elephants and one-horned rhinoceroses roam in the forests of Assam.

    Ø Camels and wild asses are found in the Great Indian desert and the Rann of Kuchchh respectively.

    Ø Wild goats, snow leopards, bears, etc. are found in the Himalayan region. Besides these, many other animals are found in our country such as monkey, wolf, jackal, nilgai, cheetal, etc.

    Ø India is equally rich in bird life. The peacock is our national bird. Other common birds are parrots, pigeons, mynah, geese, bulbul and ducks. There are several bird sanctuaries provide the natural habitat.

    Ø There are several hundreds of species of snakes found in India. Like Cobras and kraits.

    v CONSERVATATION OF WILD LIFE

    Ø Due to cutting of forests and hunting, several species of wildlife of India are declining rapidly. Many species have already become extinct.

    Ø In order to protect them many national parks, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves have been set up.


    Ø The government has started Project Tiger and Project Elephant to protect these animals.

    Ø We should avoid to buy things made from parts of the bodies of animals such as their bones, horns, fur, skins, and feathers.

    Ø Wildlife week also celebrated in the first week of October, to create awareness of conserving the habitats of the animal kingdom.

    v IMPORTANET TERMS

    Ø Weather: Weather is about day-to-day changes in the atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature, rainfall and sunshine etc.

    Ø Loo: It is a hot and dry wind that blows during the day in Summer.

    Ø Climate: Climate is the average weather condition which has been measured over many years.

    Ø Monsoon: The word monsoon has been taken from the Arabic word ‘mansim’ which means seasons.

    Ø Wildlife: All the wild animals and birds found in the forests, national parks and Sanctuaries.

    Ø Van Mahotsav: It is a special programme organized from time to time to promote people for planting more and more trees.

    Ø Natural vegetation: The grasses, shrubs and trees that grow on their own without human interference or help are known as natural vegetation.



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