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Friday, 4 November 2022







v Introduction:-

Ø The concept of Nomadic kingdom seems to be contradictory, because the Nomadic people are basically nomadic. The Mongols of Central Asia established a trans-continental empire and introduced a formidable military system and effective methods of governance. 


v Historical sources of Nomadic societies :-

Ø History, travelogue, documents of urban literary figures. Some conclusive sources are also available to us in Chinese, Mongolian, Persian and Arabic languages.

Ø We find the most important information about the expansion of the Transit Mongol Empire from Chinese, Mongolian, Persian, Arabic, Italian, Latin, French and Russian sources.

v Features of Nomadic Empire of Central Asia :-

Ø He established the transcontinental empire under the leadership of Genghis Khan in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

Ø His empire extended to Europe and the continent of Asia.

Ø Compared to China's imperial construction-system based on agriculture, perhaps the nomadic people of Mongolia were living in a normal social and unattractive environment, away from the oppressed, complex life, but these people of Central-Asia were such an isolated ' There were no islanders who were not affected by historical changes.

Ø These societies interacted with many countries of the vast world, left their influence on them and learned a lot from those of which they were an important part.

v Barbaric :-The word 'barbarian' is derived from the Greek word Barbaros which means non-Greek people.

v Social Status of Mongols :-

v 🔹 There were diverse social communities in the Mongol society. In which there were cattle herders and hunter-gatherers.

Ø The pastoral societies reared horses, sheep and camels.

Ø The pastoralists lived in the grasslands of Central Asia. Small prey were available here.

Ø The hunter gatherers lived in the Siberian forests and were poorer than the cattle herders.

Ø It is possible to do agriculture in the bard area for some period of the year, but the Mongols did not adopt agriculture.

Ø He used to form confederations of families and clans for self-defense and attack.

Ø They used to plunder for livestock and used to fight for pasture.


v Features of the military management of the Mongols :-

Ø In Mongol soldiers, each member was healthy, adult and armed cavalry.

Ø There were organized members of different castes in the army.

Ø His army was of Turkish origin and also included Kerites.

Ø  His army was formed according to the old decimal system of the steppe region.

Ø The Mongolian tribal groups were divided into new military units.

Ø The largest unit was about 10, 000 soldiers.

v Capture of Bukhara :-

Ø A Persian chronicler Juvaini, an account of the Mongol conquest of Bukhara on Iran in the thirteenth century, 1220 AD. given in.

Ø According to his statement, after the conquest of the city, Genghis Khan went to the festival ground where the rich merchants of the city had gathered. He addressed them and said,

Ø Hey guys! You should know that you have committed many sins and that the richest of you have committed the most. If you ask me what proof I have for this, I will say that I am the punishment of God. If you had not committed sins, God would not have sent me to you for punishment.

v Features of the rule of the Mongols in the thirteenth century :-

Ø By the middle of the thirteenth century, the Mongols had emerged as a unified people and created a vast empire not seen before in the world.

Ø They ruled over very complex urban societies which had their own histories, cultures and rules.

Ø Although the Mongols continued to have political dominance over the territories of their empire, they were still a numerical minority.

v Genghis Khan :-

Ø Genghis Khan was born in 1162 AD. Mongolia, initial name Temujin. 1206 AD Temujin emerged as the most influential figure in the politics of the Spei region after decisively defeating the mighty Jamuka and Neman peoples in AD. He assumed the title 'Genghis Khan, Samudri Khan or Sovereign Ruler' and was declared the great hero of the Mongols.

v Place of Genghis Khan and Mongols in world history :-

Ø Genghis Khan was a great ruler for the Mongols. He organized the Mongols. Liberated from exploitation by the Chinese. Created a trans-continental empire. Restored trade routes and markets. Its rule was multi-ethnic, multilingual, multi-religious. Now Mongolia is an independent nation and Genghis Khan is recognized as a great national hero and as a venerable person.

v Military achievements of Genghis Khan :-

Ø Efficient cavalry 

Ø Amazing skills of archery 

Ø Weather information 

Ø Siege Policy 

Ø Introduction of naphtha bombing 

Ø Manufacture of lightweight mobile equipment 

v Achievements of Genghis Khan's Descendants :-

Ø The Mongol rulers recruited people of all castes and religions as administrators and armed forces.

Ø Their rule was multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious, which had no fear of its multiple constitution.

Ø To fulfill the ambition of empire building, a confederation of people divided into many communities was formed.

Ø Ultimately the Mongol Empire changed in different environments, however the inspiration of the founder of the Mongol Empire remained an influential force.

Ø He included people of different faiths and beliefs. Although the Mongol rulers themselves belonged to different religions and faiths – Shamans, Buddhists, Christians, and finally, followers of Islam, they never imposed their personal views on public policies.

v Achievements of Genghis Khan for the Mongols :-

Ø For the Mongols, Genghis Khan was the greatest ruler ever, who had the following achievements.

Ø He organized the Mongols, liberated them from long-standing tribal wars and exploitation by the Chinese. 

Ø At the same time, he made them prosperous and created a magnificent transcontinental empire. 

Ø He travelers business paths and restore the markets to help overcome the Marco Polo Venice attracted.

Ø The reason for these conflicting images of Genghis Khan is not the only difference in perspective, but these views make us think about how one dominant point of view completely eliminates the other. 

v Relationship with the dynasty of Timur and Genghis Khan :-

Ø At the end of the fourteenth century, another king, Timur, who aspired for a universal kingdom, felt hesitant to declare himself king, as he was not a descendant of Genghis Khan. When he declared his independent sovereignty, he presented himself as the son-in-law of the Genghis Khan family.

v Yas :-

Ø Yas' was written as Yasak in the initial form. It was implemented by Genghis Khan in 1206 AD in Kuriltai. It meant law, order and order. It has administrative regulations such as the organization of the hunting, military and postal system. 

v Role of "Yas" in Mongol Governance :-

Ø Trust'  was Ysak the rule code in the initial format that Genghis Khan applied Kuriltai in 1206.

Ø Meaning – Law, order, order.

Ø Regulations on the organization of the hunting, military and postal system.

Ø The change in meaning led to the formation of a large unified empire by the Mongols by the middle of the 13th century.

Ø Minorities in numerical form over their rule over complex urban societies.

Ø Claims to have invented the sacred law of Yas to protect its identity and uniqueness.

Ø By calling Yas the code of law of his ancestor Genghis Khan, it was implemented on the subjects.

Ø United the Mongols having similar faith in Yas. The proximity of Genghis and his descendants to the Mongols was accepted.

Ø The tribal identity of the descendants from Yas remains intact. Confidence to enforce rules on defeated people.

Ø Yas was inspired by the imagination of Genghis Khan and was instrumental in the creation of a world-wide Mongol state.

v Losses from wars in the first half of the thirteenth century :-

Ø Many cities were destroyed by these wars, agricultural land was damaged and trade was ruined.

Ø The production system of handicrafts became disorganized.

Ø Hundreds - thousands of people were killed and many more were made slaves.

Ø From the elite people to the farming class, all the people had to face a lot of sufferings.

v Decline of Mongol Empire :-

Ø The fundamental reasons for the decline of the Mongols were :-

Ø Their number was very low, he was less civilized than the people. 

Ø Mutual opposition and mixing your civilization with the civilization of the conquered countries. 

Ø Adoption of other religions by Mongols. The Great Empires in The Euro Asian Continent

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