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Tuesday, 17 May 2022








 1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) In which of the following states is the Wular lake located?

(a) Rajasthan (b) Punjab (c) Uttar Pradesh (d) Jammu and Kashmir

Answer: Jammu and Kashmir.

(ii) The river Narmada has its source at

(a) Satpura (b) Amarkantak (c) Brahmagiri (d) Slopes of the Western Ghat.

Answer: Amarkantak

(iii) Which one of the following lakes is a saltwater lake?

(a) Sambhar (b) Wular (c) Dal (d) Gobind Sagar

Answer: Sambhar

(iv) Which one of the following is the longest river in Peninsular India?

(a) Narmada (b) Godavari (c) Krishna (d) Mahanadi

Answer: Godavari

(v) Which one amongst the following rivers flows through a rift valley?

(a) Mahanadi (b) Krishna (c) Tungabhadra (d) Tapi

Answer: Tapi

2. Answer the following  briefly.

(i) What is meant by a water divide? Give an example.

Answer: Any elevated area, such as a mountain or an upland, separates two drainage basins. Such an upland is known as a water divide. For example, the water divide between the Indus and the Ganga river systems.

(ii) Which is the largest river basin in India?

Answer: Ganga River basin is the largest river basin in India.

(iii) Where do the rivers Indus and Ganga have their origin?

Answer: Indus river origin – Near Manasarovar Lake, Tibet

Ganga River origin – Gangotri glacier in Uttaranchal

(iv) Name the two headstreams of the Ganga. Where do they meet to form the Ganga?

Answer: The two headstreams of Ganga are Alaknanda and Bhagirathi. They both meet to form Ganga at Devprayag.

(v) Why does the Brahmaputra in its Tibetan part have less silt, despite a longer course?

Answer: In Tibet, the river carries a smaller volume of water and less silt, as it is a cold and dry area. In India, it passes through a region of high rainfall. Hence, the river carries a large volume of water and a considerable amount of silt.

(vi) Which two Peninsular rivers flow through a trough?

Answer: Narmada and Tapi are the two Peninsular rivers that flow through a trough.

(vii) State some economic benefits of rivers and lakes.


1.    Rivers have been of fundamental importance throughout human history.

2.    Water from rivers is a basic natural resource, essential for various human activities.

3.    Therefore, riverbanks have attracted settlers from ancient times.

4.    Using rivers for irrigation, navigation and hydropower generation is of special significance — particularly to a country like India, where agriculture is the major source of livelihood of the majority of its population.

3. Below are given names of a few lakes of India. Group them under two categoriesnatural and created by human beings.

(a) Wular (b) Dal (c) Nainital (d) Bhimtal (e) Gobind Sagar (f) Loktak (g) Barapani (h) Chilika (i) Sambhar (j) Rana Pratap Sagar (k) Nizam Sagar (l) Pulicat (m) Nagarjuna Sagar (n) Hirakund


Natural Lakes:Wular, Dal, Nainital, Bhimtal, Loktal, Chilika, Pulicat, Sambhar, Barapani

Man-made lakes : Gobind Sagar, Rana Pratap Sagar, Nizam Sagar, Nagarjuan Sagar, Hirakud

4. Discuss the significant difference between the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers.

Answer: Himalayan Rivers:

1.    These are perennial rivers.

2.    Receive water from Rains and Snowfall.

3.    They form the large delta.

4.    They perform an immense erosional activity in the upper course.

5.    They have long courses from their source to the mouth.

Peninsular Rivers:

1.    These are seasonal rivers

2.    Dependent on rainfall. During dry seasons, the rivers get dried up.

3.    They form small delts.

4.    They do not perform any erosional activity in the upper course.

5.    They have shorter and shallower course.

5. Compare the east-flowing and the west-flowing rivers of the Peninsular plateau.

Answer: West flowing rivers:

    1.    There are only 2 long West flowing rivers – Narmada and Tapi.

     2.    They flow into the Arabian Sea 

     3.    They have a lesser number of tributaries

     4.    They form estuaries

      5.    They carry lesser sediments

East flowing rivers:

    1.    Many major rivers Mahanadi, Cauvery, Godavari, Krishna

     2.    They flow into the Bay of Bengal

     3.    They have many tributaries

     4.    They form Deltas.

5     5.    They carry larger sediments than West flowing rivers

6. Why are rivers important for the country’s economy?


     1.    Rivers have been of fundamental importance throughout human history.

     2.    Water from rivers is a basic natural resource, essential for various human activities.

      3.    Therefore, riverbanks have attracted settlers from ancient times. These settlements have now become big cities.

      4.    Using rivers for irrigation, navigation, hydropower generation is of special significance — particularly to a country like India, where agriculture is the major source of livelihood for the majority of its population.

      5.    The rivers tend to have a moderating influence on the climate of the surroundings. They also help to maintain the aquatic ecosystem.




 1. What is a drainage?
Answer: A system of flowing water from the higher level to the lower level.

 2. What is the area drained by a single river system called?
Answer: Drainage basin.

 3. What are the different patterns formed by the streams?
Answer: Dendritic, Trellis, Radial.

 4. Name the two main drainage basins.
Answer: The Indus Basin, The Ganga-Brahmaputra Basin.

 5. Which type of drainage pattern does an area have where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other?
Answer: Trellis pattern.

 6. What is a drainage river basin?
Answer: The area drained by a single river system is called a river basin or a drainage basin.

 7. What is meant by watershed or a water divide?
Answer: The upland or a mountain which separates two adjoining drainage basins is known as a watershed or a water divide, e.g., Ambala.

 8. On what does the stream within a drainage basin depend?
Answer: Relief, Geological structure, Climatic conditions of the area.

 9. Which is the main water divide in southern India?
Answer: Western Ghats.

 10. Zaskar and Nubra are important tributaries of which river?
Answer: Indus river.

 11. Name the three main Himalayan river systems.
Answer: The Indus River System ,The Ganga River System, The Brahmaputra River System.

 12. What is a gorge?
Answer: A deep narrow opening formed by the river in the upper course, e.g., the gorge formed by the river Indus.

 13. Name three depositional features formed by the Himalayan rivers.
Answer: Flood plains, River cliffs, Levee.

 14. Name any four depositional features of the Himalayan rivers in their middle and lower course.
Answer: Meanders, Oxbow lakes, Delta, Flood plains.

 15. Where does the river Indus rise?
Answer: In Tibet, near the Mansarovar lake.

 16. Name the tributaries of river Indus.
Answer: The Zaskar, the Shyok, the Nubra and the Hunza.

 17. Name the two main groups into which the river systems of India are classified.
Answer: The Himalayan rivers, The Peninsular rivers.

 18. Why are the Himalayan rivers perennial?
Answer: Most of the Himalayan rivers originate from the glaciers. They get water from the rainfall as well as from the glaciers.

 19. Name the city located on the water divide between the Indus and the Ganga river systems.
Answer: Ambala.

 20. Which states are benefited by the Indus system?
Answer: Punjab, Haryana and western parts of Rajasthan.

 21. What is the Indus water treaty?
Answer: It is a treaty signed between India and Pakistan. According to this treaty, India can use only 20% of the total water carried by the Indus river system.

 22. Name the plan which was launched to reduce pollution in the river Ganga.
Answer: The Ganga Action Plan. Namami Ganga

 23. Name any two tributaries of Ganga which rise in the Nepal Himalayas.
Answer: The Ghaghara and Kosi.

 24. Which is the northernmost point of the Ganga Delta?
Answer: The Ganga flows eastwards Farakka in West Bengal. This is the northernmost point of the Ganga delta.

 25. Which is the largest river basin in India?
Answer: The Ganga Basin.

 26. What is the length of the Ganga?
Answer: About 2500 km.

 27. Name two headstreams of the Ganga. Where do they unite?
Answer: Bhagirathi, Alaknanda. They meet at Devprayag.

 28. Name the city at which the Ganga enters the plains from the Himalayas.
Answer: Haridwar.

 29. Name the tributaries of river Ganga which enter the northern plains from Nepal.
Answer: Ghaghara, Gandak and Kosi.

 30. Name the two main right bank tributaries of the Ganga.
Answer: The Yamuna and the Son.

 31. What is the major concern of the Ganga Action Plan?
Answer: Rising pollution in the Ganga is the major concern of the Ganga Action Plan.

 32. What is the name of the Brahmaputra river in Tibet?
Answer: Tsangpo.

 33. From where does the river Brahmaputra arise?
Answer: In Tibet east of Mansarover lake.

 34. What are perennial rivers?
Answer: The rivers which have water throughout the year are called the perennial rivers.

 35. Which is the largest Peninsular river? Where does it originate from?
Answer: Godavari, it arises from the Nasik district of Maharashtra.

 36. Name any two Peninsular rivers which flow through the rift valley.
Answer: The Narmada and the Tapti.

 37. Which is the main watershed in Peninsular India?
Answer: The main watershed in Peninsular India is formed by the Western Ghats.

 38. Name the major rivers of the Peninsular India.
Answer: The Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri.

 39. Name any two small river basins of the peninsular region.
Answer: The Pennar, and The Mahi.

 40. Name two large rivers of India which flow into the Arabian Sea.
Answer: The Narmada and the Tapti.

 41. Which type of drainage pattern is made by Narmada river?
Answer: Trellis.

 42. What is the msyor reason for the nonperennial nature of the peninsular rivers?
Answer: Rainfall is the only source of water for these rivers.

 43.From where does the Narmada river rise?
Answer: Near Amarkantak, in Madhya Pradesh.

 44. In which hills does the Tapi river rise?
Answer: Satpura ranges.

 45. From where does the Tapti river arise?
Answer: In the Betul district of Madhya Pradesh.

 46. Name the states through which the Tapti river flows.
Answer: Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

 47. In which state does the largest part of the Godavari basin lie?
Answer: Maharashtra.

 48. Which river is known as Dakshin Ganga?
Answer: Godavari.

 49. Name the tributaries of Godavari river.
Answer: The Purna, the Wardha, the Pranhita, the Manjra, the Wainganga and the Pehganga.

 50. Why is the Godavari river called the Vridha Ganga or the Dakshin Ganga?
Answer: It is because of its large size and the huge extent.

 51. Name the tributaries of Krishna.
The Tungabhadra, the Koyna, the Ghatprabha, the Musi and the Bhima.

 52. What is the source of river Yamuna?
Answer: Yamunotri glacier in the Himalayas.

 53. Which city is located at the confluence of the Yamuna and the Ganga?
Answer: Allahabad.

 54. Name the five rivers of Punjab from which the water falls into the Indus.
Answer: The Sutlej, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum.

 55. What is a canyon?

Answer: It is a deep gorge with steep sides containing many streams, e.g., the Grand Canyon of the Colorado river.


1.Describe any three features of Himalayan rivers.

Answer: Features of the Himalayan Rivers:

1.    They are perennial in nature.

2.    They have large basins.

3.    They perform intensive erosion activity in their upper course and carry huge load of silt and sand.

 2. Define a river system and describe two characteristics of river Indus.
Answer: A river along with its tributaries is called a river system.
Characteristics of River Indus:

1.    River Indus rises in Tibet near Mansarovar lake.

2.    Its total length is 2,900 km and is one of the longest rivers of the world.

3.    Majority flows through Pakistan and help in agricultural activities.

4.    The main tributaries of Indus are Nubra, Hunza, Sulley, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum. (any two)

3. Write a short note on the Brahmaputra river system.
Describe the three main features of river Brahmaputra.
Answer: The Brahmaputra originates in Tibet where it is known as Tsangpo.

    1.    It flows eastwards parallel to the Himalayas, but it takes a U-tum around the Namcha Barwa and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh.

     2.    It is responsible for creating a havoc of floods in Assam and Bangladesh.

    3.    This river receives less volume of water and has less silt in Tibetan part, but it carries a large volume of water and silt in India.

    4.    It has a braided channel in most of its length in Assam with a few large islands within the channel.

 4. Describe any three features of Ganga-Brahmaputra delta.
Describe the features of the Ganga plain.
The Sundarban Delta derived its name from the Sundari tree which grows well in marshland.

1.    It is formed by the rivers Ganga and the Brahmaputra.

2.    It is the world’s largest and fastest growing delta.

3.    It is also the home of Royal Bengal Tiger.

 5. Why do the Himalayan rivers get flooded every year? What are its advantages?

     1.    The Himalayan rivers receive water from the melted snow from the lofty mountains as well as from rain.

     2.    During monsoons, due to heavy rainfall, these rivers get flooded every year.

    .    Advantages:

    1.    The Himalayan rivers flood parts of the northern plains enfiching the soil for the extensive agricultural lands.

    2.    Various food crops and cash crops are grown in these fertile lands.

6. Why are most of the Peninsular rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal? Give reasons. Name the two rivers draining into the Arabian Sea.
(a) The main water divide in Peninsular India is formed by the Western Ghats, which runs from north to south close to the western coast..
(b) The Deccan Plateau is higher in the west and slopes gently eastwards.
Thus, most of the peninsular rivers such as Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri flow eastwards and drain into the Bay of Bengal.
(ii) The river Narmada and river Tapi drain into the Arabian Sea.

 8. Which two rivers of Peninsular India form estuaries? Name the states in which these rivers drain the water.
Answer: The river Narmada and the Tapi form estuaries.

  The Narmada basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.

The Tapi basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

 9. Why are Peninsular rivers seasonal in nature? Give any three reasons.
Answer: The flow of Peninsular rivers is dependent on rainfall.

     1.    The Peninsular rivers have shorter and shallower courses as compared to their Himalayan counterparts.

     2.    The tributaries are very short and less in number and bring quite less amount of water which hardly increases the amount of water of the main river. Therefore, during the dry season, even the large rivers have reduced flow of water in their channels.

 10. Which two peninsular rivers flow westward? Mention one similarity and one difference between these two rivers.
Answer: Narmada and Tapi.

These rivers flow through rift valley. .

The tributaries of these rivers are small in size.


Tapi is the second largest river of Peninsular India and Narmada is the fifth largest river.

Narmada river forms an estuary before entering into the Gulf of Khambhat. On the other hand Tapi does not form an estuary.

11. Describe the main features of Narmada Basin.

     1.    All the tributaries of the Narmada are very short and most of these join the mainstreams at right angle.

     2.The river forms an estuary before entering into the Gulf of Khambhat.

    3.    The river Narmada rises in the Amarkantak hills and flows towards the west in a rift valley formed due to faulting.

 12. Describe the main features of Tapi Basin.

     1.    It is the second largest river of the peninsular, rises in the Satpura ranges, in the Betul district of Madhya Pradesh.

     2.    It also flows in a rift valley parallel to the Narmada but it is much shorter in length.

     3.    Its basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

 13. Describe any three important features of the Krishna Basin.

     1.    The river Krishna rises from a spring near Mahabaleshwar. It flows for about 1400 kms.

     2 .    The Tungabhadra, the Koyana, the Ghatprabha, the Musi and the Bhima are some of its tributaries.

    3.    Its drainage basin is shared by Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

 14. Why is the Godavari river also known as ‘Dakshin Ganga’? HOTS

1.    The Godavari is the largest peninsular river.

     2.    Its drainage basin is also the largest among the peninsular rivers. The basin covers parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.

     3.    The Godavari is joined by a number of tributaries such as the Purna, the Wardha, the Pranhita, the Manjra, the Wainganga and the Penganga.

4.    Because of its length and the area it covers, it is also known as the ‘Dakshin Ganga’.



1.Describe the four drainage patterns.
Answer: The four drainage patterns are as follows:

1.    Dendritic: The dendritic patterns develop where the river channels follows the slope terrain. The stream with its tributaries resembles the branches of a tree, thus the name dendritic.

2.    Trellis: A river joined by its tributaries, at approximately right angles, develops a Trellis pattern. A Trellis drainage pattern develops where hard and soft rocks: exist parallel to each other.

3.    Rectangular: A rectangular drainage pattern develops on a strongly-jointed rocky terrain.

4.    Radial: The radial pattern develops when streams flows in different directions from a central peak or dome-like structure.

2.“Rivers constitute the most useful natural resources.” Support the statement with five suitable examples.
Rivers are the most important natural resources because

1.    Rivers provide water for survival and growth of all organisms.

2.    Rivers provided ideal conditions for the early man to lead a settled life.

3.    Rivers have built flood plains, deltas and provide fertile soil for agriculture.

4.    Water from rivers is used for drinking, irrigation and for generating hydro- electricity.

5.    Man is able to supplement his food supply with the fish in the rivers. Rivers also serve as natural waterways.

6.    World’s earliest civilization developed in the river valleys, e.g., Nile Valley civilization, Indus Valley civilization etc. River Valleys are the world’s best agricultural lands, and are densely populated regions.

3.Write the main features of the Ganga system.
  Answer: The Ganga has two headstreams-the Alaknanda and the Bhagirathi. They join together at Devprayag.

     1.    From the Himalayas the Ganga enters the plains at Haridwar. It is joined together by a large number of tributaries like Ghaghara, the Gandak and the Kosi.

     2.    The Yamuna and the Son are the two main right bank tributaries of the Ganga.

     3.    The Ganga enters Bangladesh as Padma. It flows southward through Bangladesh, and is joined by the Brahmaputra and is known as the Jamuna. After receiving Meghna, it is known as the Meghna.

     4.    The length of the Ganga is over 2500 km, and it has the largest basin.


4.Distinguish between a Delta and an Estuary.





The triangular deposits made by the river at its mouth form delta.

The sharp edge at the mouth of the river devoid any deposits is known as estuary.


Deltas are formed in the regions of low tide and coastal plains.

The regions of high tides and rift valleys witness estuaries.


Deltas are fertile lands.

Estuaries do not have fertile lands.


The river Ganga, the Krishna, the Godavari, are some of the rivers which form deltas.

Narmada and Tapi rivets form estuaries.

 5. Distinguish between perennial and non-perennial rivers.





These rivers have water throughout the year.

These have water only during the rainy season.


Rainfall and melted snow are the source of water for these rivers.

Rainfall is the only source of water for these rivets.


Most of the Himalayan rivers are perennial.

Most of the Peninsular rivers are non-perennial.

 6. Explain the ‘National River Conservation Plan’ (NRCP) in brief.
Answer: The activities of Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase-I, initiated in 1985, were declared closed on 31st March, 2000. The Steering Committee of the National River Conservation Authority reviewed the progress of the GAP and necessary correction on the basis of lessons learnt and experiences gained from GAP Phase-I. These have been applied to the major polluted rivers of the country under the NRCP.

The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase-II, has been merged with the NRCP. The expanded NRCP now covers 152 towns located along 27 interstate rivers in 16 states. Under this action plan, pollution abatement works are being taken up in 57 towns. A total of 215 schemes of pollution abatement have been sanctioned. So far, 69 schemes have been completed under this action plan. A million litre of sewage is targeted\to be intercepted, diverted and treated.

 10. Differentiate between freshwater lakes and saltwater lakes giving examples of each.
Freshwater Lakes:

1.    Freshwater lakes are mostly found in the Himalayan region.

2.    They are of glacial origin which means that they were formed when glaciers dug out a basin which was later filled with snow melt.

3.    The Wular lake in Jammu and Kashmir is the result of the tectonic activity.

4.    The Dal lake, Bhimtal, Nainital, Loktak and Barapani are some other important freshwater lakes.

Saltwater Lakes:

1.    Spits and bars form lagoons in the coastal areas, e.g., the Chilika lake, the Pulicat lake, the Kolleru lake are the saltwater lakes.

2.    Lakes in the regions of inland drainage are the saltwater lakes, e.g., the Sambhar lake in Rajasthan. Its water is used for producing salt.


 11. What are the major factors responsible for river pollution? Explain.

1.    High Demand of Water: The growing domestic, municipal, industrial and agricultural demand for water from rivers naturally affects the quality of water. As a result, more and more water is being drained out of the river reducing its volume.

2.    Industralisation: A heavy load of untreated sewage and industrial effluents are emptied into the rivers. This affects not only the quality of water but also the self-cleansing capacity of the river. For example, given the adequate streamflow, the Ganga water is able to dilute and assimilate pollution loads within 20 km of large cities. But the increasing urbanisation, and industrialisation do not allow it to happen and the pollution level of many rivers has been rising.

3.    Agricultural Pollution: The extensive uses of chemicals in the form of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture have left the water bodies contaminated with heavy metals. Such heavy metals enter human body through the food we eat, and many of them cause health problems such as cancer.

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