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Friday 10 June 2022








    Ø As we know that human beings are dependent on the nature for their needs as food, clothes, shelters etc.

    Ø But with time they learnt new skills to grow food, build homes and develop better means of transport and communication.

    Ø In this way they modified the environment where they lived, that refers as Human environment.

    Ø In this lesson we will read about settlement, transport and communication in human environment.


    Ø Settlements are places where people build their homes and settle there.

    Ø Earlier settlements grew near the river valleys as the water was easily available and the land was fertile.

    Ø As we know earliest civilizations flourished along the bank of these rivers as Indus, Tigris, Nile and Hwang-He.


    Ø According to time period:

    Permanent Settlements:

    Temporary Settlements

    Settlements which are occupied for a long period of time are called Permanent settlements.

    Settlements which are occupied for a short time are called temporary settlements.


    In this settlement people build pacca houses.

    Here people move according to seasons so they build only kachha houses, huts.

    It is found in plain areas and moderate climate areas.

    It is found in mountain areas and extreme climate areas.


    Ø According to locality:

    Rural Settlements:

    Urban Settlements

    Settlements in rural areas are called as rural settlements.

    Settlements in urban areas are called as urban settlements.


    People in rural areas practice agriculture.

     In the urban area, people are mostly engaged in services

    Here mostly scattered settlements are found.

    Here mostly compact settlements and high rise building ae found.


    Ø According to spacious

    Compact Settlements:

    Scattered Settlements

    The settlements where houses are constructed very close to each other.

    The settlements where there is more space among the houses.

    These found in city and town  areas.

    This type of settlement is mostly found in hilly tracts, thick forests, and regions of extreme climate.




    Ø The constructions of house are very much affected by the local environment.

    §  In Places where water accumulates in the rainy season the houses are constructed on a raised platform or stilts. As in Assam.

    §  In the region of heavy rainfall, they have slanting roofs. Foe example in Goa.

    §  Thick mud walled houses with thatched roofs are very common in areas of hot climate,

    §   In the snow-covered areas people build Igloo.


    Ø Transport is the means by which people and goods move from one place to another place.

    Ø Earlier donkeys, mules, bullocks and camels were used for transportation.

    Ø With the invention of the wheel, transport became easier.

    Ø Earlier traders took the land route or sea route for transportation. Now it takes only 6-8 hours to travel from India to Europe.


    Ø Roadways

    §  The most commonly used means of transport, especially for short distances, are roads. They can be metalled or unmetalled.

    §  The plains have a dense network of roads. Roads built underground are called subways/under paths.

    §  There are several National and State highways in India. The latest development in India is the construction of Express Ways. The Golden Quadrilateral connects Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.

    §  Manali-Leh highway in the Himalayan Mountain is one of the highest roadways in the world.

    v Railways

    Ø Railways are the fastest means of land transport and can carry bulky materials over a long distance.

    Ø The railways carry people over long distances quickly and economically.

    Ø The invention of the steam engine and the industrial revolution helped in the speedy development of rail transport.

    Ø Now a days, diesel and electric engine have largely replaced the steam engines.

    Ø Now superfast trains have been introduced to make travelling faster. Indian Railways network is the largest in Asia.

    v Waterways

    Ø Waterways are the cheapest means of transportation for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances.

    Ø There are mainly two types of routes, inland waterways and sea routes.

    §  Navigable rivers and lakes are used as inland waterways. Some of the important inland waterways are the Ganga-Brahmaputra River system, the Great Lakes in North America and the river Nile in Africa.

    §  Sea routes are connected through ports. with the ports. Some of the important ports of the world are Singapore and Mumbai in Asia, New York, Los Angeles in North America, Rio de Janeiro in South America, Durban and Cape Town in Africa, Sydney in Australia, London and Rotterdam in Europe etc.

    v Airways

    Ø Airways are the fastest and most expensive mode of transport.

    Ø It is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads and railways.

    Ø Helicopters are extremely useful in most inaccessible areas and in time of calamities for rescuing people and distributing food, water, clothes and medicines.

    Ø Some major airports in the world are Delhi, Mumbai, New York, London, Paris, Frankfurt and Cairo etc.

    v Communication

    Ø Process of conveying the message to others is known as communication.

    Ø Different modes of communication are used to provide information, to educate as well as to entertain.

    Ø Communication is of two types namely, personal and mass communication.

    Ø Through newspaper, radio and television, we can communicate with a large number of people. They are, therefore, called mass media.

    Ø Satellites, Internet, Wireless telephone are the main modes of communication.

    Ø Wireless telephonic communications through cellular phones have become very popular today.

    Ø The Internet provides us with worldwide information and interaction



    Ø Settlement: It refers to a place where people build their homes. ,

    Ø Site: It refers to a place where a building or a settlement develops.

    Ø Transhumance: It is a seasonal movement of people.

    Ø Compact settlement: It is a closely built area of dwellings.

    Ø Scattered settlement: When dwellings are spaced over an extensive area.

    Ø Transport: It is the means by which people and goods move from one place to another.

    Ø Metalled roads: These are pucca roads and are used in all the weather.

    Ø Unmetalled roads: These are Kutcha roads. They are out of work during the rainy season.

    Ø Subways: Underground roads are called subways.

    Ø Flyovers: These are built over raised structures.

    Ø Communication: The process through which we convey messages to others.

    Ø Mass Media: Newspapers, radio and television are called mass media because they communicate with a large number of people at the same time.


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