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Sunday, 9 August 2020

GEOGRAPHY (VI) LESSON-4 MAPS (LESSON NOTES)

 

GEOGRAPHY (VI) LESSON-4

MAPS

(LESSON NOTES)

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v MAP

Ø     A representation or a drawing of the Earth’s surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface according to a scale is known as Map. Book of maps is known as Atlas.

v COMPARISION OF MAP AND GLOBE

GLOBE

MAP

Globe is used to study the whole Earth.

Map is used to study the whole Earth as well as its part.

It is not easy to carry.

Maps are easy to carry.

Globe is three three-dimensional sphere.

Map is a simple drawing on paper.


v
TYPES OF MAPS

There are mainly three types of maps-

Ø PHYSICAL OR RELIEF MAPS

§ The map which shows natural features of the earth like Mountains, rivers, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are called physical or relief maps.

 

Ø POLITICAL MAPS 

§ The Maps which showing cities, towns and villages, and different countries and states of the world with their boundaries are called political maps.

Ø THEMATIC MAPS

§ The maps which focus on specific information; such as road maps, rainfall maps, maps showing distribution of forests, industries etc. are known as thematic maps.

v COMPONENTS OF MAPS

There are three components of maps—distance, direction and symbol.

Ø SCALE OR DISTANCE

§  The ratio between the actual distance on the ground and the distance shown on the map is known as scale.

 

§  By the scale we can calculate the distance between any two places on a map.

§  For example, the distance between your school and your home is 10 km. If you show this 10 km. distance by 2 cm on a map, it means, 1 cm on the map will show 5 km. on the ground. The scale of your drawing will be 1cm = 5km.

LARGE SCALE

SMALL SCALE

It is used to show small area like village or town in map

It is used to show large area like continents or continents in map.

It provide more information

It provide less information

Example- 5 cm=500 km

Example- 5 cm=500 m

 

Ø DIRECTION

§  Every map contains an arrow marked with the letter ‘N’ at the upper right hand corner. This arrow shows the north direction. It is called the north line

§  There are four major directions, North, South, East and West. They are called cardinal points.

§  There are four intermediate directions—north-east (NE), south-east (SE), south-west (SW) and north-west (NW).

§  We can find out the direction of a place with the help of a magnetic compass.

 

Ø SYMBOLS

§  The certain letters, shades, colours, pictures and lines used on maps to show the different features as such as buildings, roads, bridges, trees, railway lines or a well of the Earth are called as conventional symbols.

§  These symbols are internationally approved.

§  The conventional symbols give a lot of information in a limited space.

§  The blue colour is used for showing water bodies, brown for mountains, yellow for plateau and green is used for plains.

v SKETCH

Ø A drawing mainly based on memory and spot observation is called as sketch.

Ø It is not based on scale.

 

v PLAN

Ø A drawing of a very small area on a large scale is called as plan.

Ø For example we required a plan to know about the length and breadth of a room.

 

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GEOGRAPHY (IX)-LESSON-4 CLIMATE (LESSON NOTES)

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