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Tuesday, 11 August 2020

THEME 9 (XII) KINGS AND CHRONICLES :MUGHAL COURTS (LESSON NOTES)

  

THEME 9 (XII)

KINGS AND CHRONICLES :MUGHAL COURTS

(LESSON NOTES)

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v INTRODUCTION

Ø This lesson provides the detailed information about the Mughal courts, its administration, rules, household, officials, religions etc. through different sources.

Ø The Mughal Kings commissioned court historians to write accounts of their achievements and events.

Ø Modern historians termed those accounts as chronicles because these accounts give information in chronological order.

Ø IMPORTANCE OF CHRONICLES

§  Chronicles are an indispensable source for any scholar wishing to write a history of the Mughals.

§  They provide the factual information about the institution of the Mughal state.

§  These chronicles were intended as conveyors of meanings that the Mughal rulers sought to impose on their domain.

v MUGHAL EMPIRE

Ø Mughals belonged to two linage. From Mother side they belonged to Mongol and from father side they were Timurieds.


Ø The term Mughal is derived from Mongol. But the Mughal Kings did not call themselves as the Mughals. They called themselves as Timurids, the descendants of the Turkish ruler Timur.

Ø  During the 16th century, Europeans used the term ‘Mughal’ to describe the branch of the family of Timur.


v MUGHAL RULERS

Ø Zahiruddin Babur (1526-30)

§  Zahiruddin Babur was the founder of the Mughal Empire. He belongs to Genghis Khan (Mongol) from mother side. He was expelled from his homeland (Fargana) by Uzbeks.

§  He first established himself at Kabul and then in 1526 moved further into the Indian subcontinent in search of territories and resources to satisfy the needs of his clan.

§  Here he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, Delhi Sultan in 1526 in First battle of Panipat and established Mughal Empire in Delhi.

Ø Nasiruddin Humayun (1530-40, 1555-56)

§  Babur was succeeded by Humayun as the Mughal ruler in 1530 .But Sher Shah Suri, an Afghan leader drove him to exile. Humayun took refuge in the court of the Safavid ruler of Iran. In 1555 Humayun defeated Sher Shah and regained his empire.

Ø Jalaluddin Akbar (1556-1605)

§  Akbar is considered to be a great ruler of the Mughals.He expanded his empire and made it as the largest, strongest and the richest kingdom at the time of his rule. He was able to expand his empire up to the Hindukush Mountains and prevented the Uzbeks and Safavids.

Ø Jahangir (Salim) (1605-27)

Ø Shajahan (khurram) (1628-58)

Ø  Aurangzeb or Alamgir (1658-1707)

 

v MUGHAL IMPERIAL STRUCTURE.

Ø The institutions of an imperial structure were created in the 16th and 17th centuries by Mughal authority.

Ø It had effective methods of administration and taxation.

Ø The court was the centre of the Mughal power where political alliances and relationships were made and status and hierarchies were defined.

Ø The political system of the Mughals was based on a combination of military power accommodating various traditions of the subcontinent that the Mughals faced.

v DECLINE OF MUGHAL

Ø Mughal ruled almost all over India from1526 to 1707 in a very effective way. But after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the power of the dynasty diminished.

Ø Many regional powers acquired greater autonomy, In place of the vast different capital cities Delhi, Agra or Lahore.

Ø Though Mughal Empire continued till 1857 when East India company overthrown last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar II after revolt 1857 and sent him to exile to Rangoon.



v PRODUCTION OF CHRONICLES

Ø Chronicles-The accounts written by Mughal historian which provide the information in chronological order were called as chronicles. Mughal authority keen to published the chronicles because-

§   The chronicles were written, to convey a vision of enlightened kingdom to all those who came under its umbrella.

§  To convey to those who resisted the rule of the Mughals that all resistance was destined to fail.

§  They wanted that there was an account of their rule for posterity or for future generation.

§   Most of the authors of the chronicles were court historians. They focused on events centered to the ruler, his family, the court and nobles, wars and administrative system.

§  FAMOUS CHRONICLES-

¨    Babur Nama

¨    Akbar Nama

¨    Shajahan Nama

¨    Alamgir Nama

v LANGUAGE USED IN CHRONICLES

Ø The Mughals were chaghtai Turks by origin and Turkish was their mother tongue.

Ø The first ruler Babur wrote poetry and his memoirs Babur Nama in Turkish language.

Ø Akbar developed Persian as a leading language in the Mughal court due to-

§  Persian was a court language during Sultans of Delhi and it flourished with local variants like Hindavi.

§  To make good cultural and intellectual contacts with Iran.

Ø EFFECTS

§  Those who had command on Persian were conferred power and prestige.

§  It was spoken by the king, the elite and people at the royal court.

§  Persian language influenced other Indian languages such as Rajasthani, Marathi and Tamil.

§  It became Indianised by observing idiom and vocabulary from the Indian languages.

§  A new language, Urdu, sprang from the interaction of Persian with Hindavi.

§  Many chronicles were written in Persian language and many were translated into Persian.

Written in Persian

Translated into Persian

AKBAR NAMA

 

BABURNAMA

 

SHSHJAHAN NAMA

 

MAHBHARAT

Razmnama( Book of Wars).

ALAMGIRNAMA

 

RAMAYAN

 

 

v MANUSCRIPTS

Ø The books which were written by hand is called as manuscripts. These were written in imperial Kitabkhana in Mughal Empire.

Ø Kitabkhana- It was a place or scriptorium where emperor’s collection of manuscript was kept and new manuscripts were produced.

Ø MAKING OF MANUSCRIPTS

PERSONS

WORKS

REMARKS

Papermakers

Prepared folios of the manuscripts

High status And get titles and award

Scribes or calligraphers

Copied the text

High status And get titles and award

Gilders

Illuminated the pages.

Remained anonymous artisans.

Painters

Illustrated scenes from the text

High status And get titles and award

Book binders

Gathered the individual folios and set them within ornamental

Remained anonymous artisans.

 

Ø CALLIGRAPHY

Ø Art of handwriting is called calligraphy. It was considered a skill of great importance. Muhammad Husayn of Kashmir (c.1575-1605), one of the finest calligraphers at Akbar’s court, who was honoured with the title “zarrin qalam” (golden pen)



§  It was practiced with different styles like nastaliq, shikaste etc.

§   Akbar’s favorite handwritten style was the nastaliq which was a fluid style with long horizontal strokes.

§  It was written using a piece of trimmed reed which had a tip of five to 10 mm called qalam. The reed was dipped in carbon ink(siyahi).The nib of

the qalam was split in the middle to facilitate the flow of ink.

v PAINTED IMAGES

Ø As you know that many persons were evolved in making of chronicles. The painters were also important among them. As many events were described by the images in the chronicles. So the painter played an important role in the production of manuscripts.

Ø IMPORTANCE OF IMAGS OR PAINTINGS

§  Paintings enhanced the beauty of manuscripts.

§  It describes the events in visual form.

§  It also communicated ideas about kingdom and the power of kings.

§  The historian Abul Fazl described paintings as “magical art” as the painting inanimate objects look as if they possessed life.

Ø TENSION DUE TO PAINTING

§  The production of paintings and portraying the emperors  created the tension between rulers and Muslim orthodoxy, the ulama.

§  As Quran And Hadis imposed restrictions on the portraiture of human beings

§  By the painting, artist was seeking to appropriate the power of creation. This was a function that was believed to belong exclusively to God.

Ø NEW INTERPRETATION

§  Within the time the various social groups interpreted the body of Islamic tradition in different ways.

§  Each group put forward an understanding of tradition that would best suit their political needs.

§  Muslim rulers in many Asian regions patronized artists to paint their images and court scenes.

§  The artists were trained in workshops set up at court under the rule of Safavid kings.

§  Artists such as Bihzad contributed to the spreading of the cultural fame of the safavid court far and wide.

§  Artists from Iran came to India during the mughal rule.

§  Artists like Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdal Samad accompanied Emperor Humayun to Delhi. Other artists migrated to Delhi in search of opportunities.

v ABUL FAZL

Ø Abul Fazl was one of the jem of Akbar’s court.

Ø  He was well versed with Arabic, Persian, Greek philosophy and Sufism.

Ø He was a forceful debater and independent thinker who consistently opposed the views of the conservative ulama.

Ø These qualities impressed Akbar, who found Abul Fazl ideally suited as an adviser and spokesperson for his policies.

Ø Emperor’s objective was to free the state from the control of religious orthodoxy.

Ø In his role as court historian, Abul Fazl both shaped and articulated the ideas associated with the reign of Akbar.

Ø Abul Fazl was murdered by Bir Singh Bundela an accomplice of Prince Salim (Jahangir) who conspired against the emperor.

v THE AKBAR NAMA

Ø The Akbar Nama is one of the important illustrated official chronicles. It was written by Abul Fazal.

Ø  The manuscript has an average of 150 full or double page paintings of battles, sieges, hunts, building construction and court scenes.

Ø In 1589, Abul Fazl worked on the Akbar Nama for thirteen years, repeatedly revising the draft.

Ø  The chronicle is based on a range of sources, including actual records of events (waqai), official documents and oral testimonies of knowledgeable persons.

Ø The Akbar Nama is divided in to three books. The first two are chronicles and the third is Ain-i-Akbari.

Ø The first volume starts from the history of mankind from Adam to one celestial cycle of Akbar’s life (30 years).

Ø The second volume closes in the forty sixth regnal year (1601) of Akbar.

Ø The Akbar Nama was written to provide detailed information of the political events of Akbar’s reign.

Ø The Akbar Nama also provide a detailed description of Akbar’s empire-geographic, social, administrative and cultural-without reference to chronology.

Ø In the Ain-i-Akbari the Mughal Empire is presented as having a diverse population consisting of Hindus, Jainas, Buddhists and Muslims and a composite culture.

Ø Abul Fazl wrote this in a language that was ornate and which attached importance to diction and rhythm, as texts were often read aloud.

Ø This Indo-Persian style was patronized at court, and there were a large number of writers who wanted to write like Abul Fazl.

v THE BADSHAH NAMA

Ø A pupil of Abul Fazl, Abdul Hamid Lahori is known as the author of the Badshah Nama.

Ø Emperor Shah Jahan, hearing of his talents, commissioned him to write a history of his reign modeled on the Akbar Nama.

Ø The Badshah Nama is the official history in three volumes (daftars) of ten lunar years each.

Ø Lahori wrote the first and second daftars comprising the first two decades of the emperor’s rule (1627-47).



Ø Sadullah Khan, Shah Jahan’s wazir, later revised these volumes.

Ø The historian Waris chronicled third decade.

Ø British administrators began to study Indian history and to create an archive of knowledge about the subcontinent to help them better understand the people and the cultures of the empire they sought to rule.

v THE STUDY OF INDIAN HISTORY

Ø British administrators started to study Indian history in order to understand the people and their cultures, so that they could rule accordingly.

Ø  Sir William Jones founded The Asiatic Society of Bengal and took the task of editing, printing and translation of many Indian manuscripts.

Ø The Asiatic Society of Bengal published and edited the versions of the Akbar Nama and Badshah Nama in the 19th century.

Ø The English translation of the Akbar Nama was published by Henry Beveridge.

Ø But the Badshah Nama has not been translated in English completely till date.

v THE IDEAL KINGDOM

Ø A DIVINE LIGHT: NOTIONS ABOUT KINGSHIP

§  Court chroniclers drew upon many sources to show that power of Mughal rulers directly from God.

§  They told that Mongol queen Alanqua, who was impregnated by a ray of sunshine while resting in her tent. The offspring she bore carried this Divine Light and passed it on from generation to generation.

§  Abul Fazl placed Mughal kingship as the highest station in the hierarchy of objects receiving light emanating from God (farr-i izadi).



§  A famous Iranian Sufi, Shihabuddin Suhrawardi (d.1191) believed that, Divine Light was transmitted to the king firstly after that it became the source of spiritual guidance for his subjects.

§  Mughal artists, from the 17th century onwards, began to portray emperors wearing the halo, which they saw on European paintings of Christ and the Virgin Mary to symbolize the light of God.

v A UNIFYING FORCE: THE POLICY OF SULH-I-KUL

Ø Abul Fazl describes the ideal of Sulh-i-kul(absolute peace)as the cornerstone of enlightend rule.

Ø In Sulh-i-kul all religions and schools of thought had freedom of expression but on condition that they did not undermine the authority of the state or fight among themselves.

Ø The mughal rulers have taken many decision to implemented the idea of Sulh-i-kul or universal peace as-

§  In Mughal courts nobles belongs to different groups as Iranis, Turanis, Afghans, Rajaputs, and Deccanis. Their position and awards purely on the basis of their service and loyalty to the king.

§  Akbar abolished the tax on pilgrimage in 1563 and jiziya in 1564 as the two were based on religious discrimination.

§  Instructions were sent to officers of the empire to follow the precept of Sulh-i-kul in administration.

§  All Mughal emperors gave grants to support the building and maintenance of places of worship.

§  Even when temples were destroyed during war, grants were later issued for their repair-as we know from the reigns of Shah Jahan and Aurangazeb.

§  However, during the reign of the later, the jizya was reimposed on non-Muslim subjects.

    v SOVEREIGNTY -A SOCIAL CONTRACT

Ø Abul Fazl defined sovereignty as a social contract

Ø The emperor protects the four essence of his subjects, namely, life(jan), property(mal), honour (namus) and faith (din) and in return demands obedience and a share of resources.

Ø Only just sovereigns were thought to be able to honour the contract with power and divine Guidance.

Ø A number of symbols were created for visual representation of the idea of justice that came to stand for the highest virtue of Mughal monarchy.

Ø One of the favorite symbols used by artists was the motif of the lion and the lamb (or cow) peacefully nestling next to each other. This was meant to signify a realm where both the strong and the weak live together.

Ø Court scenes from the illustrated Badshah Nama place such motifs in a niche directly below the emperor’s throne.

Ø Chain of justice was fastening in the court of justice. The Chain of Justice is shown in pictures directly descending from heaven.

Ø Mughal chronicles present the empire as comprising many different ethnic and religious communities-Hindus,Jainas,Zorastrian and Muslims.

Ø As the source of all peace and stability the emperor stood above all religious and ethnic groups, medicated among them, and ensured that justice and peace provided.

 

v CAPITALS AND THE COURTS OF THE MUGHALS

 

v The Mughal Capitals

Ø The heart of the Mughal Empire was its capital city. The capital cities of the Mughals were frequently shifted during the 16th and 17th centuries.

Ø Babur conquered the Lodi capital of Agra, though the court was frequently move.

Ø During the reign of Akbar the capital has changed three times as-

§  Akbar constructed red fort during 1560's in Agra with red stone and shifted his capital.

§  After that In the 1570s, he built a new capital in Fatehpur Sikri because Mughal Emperors have close relationship with the sufis of the Chishti. It was located on the direct road to Ajmer where the dargah of Shaikh Muinuddin Chishti was there. Akbar constructed a white marble tomb for Shaikh Salim Chishti near Friday mosque at Sikri. Akbar commissioned the construction of Buland Darwaza(arched gateway) to remind visitors of the Mughal victory in Gujarat.


 

§  The capital again shifted to Lahore in 1585 in order to strengthen the control over north-west. Akbar monitored it closely for thirteen years.

Ø Shah Jahan was very fond of building construction. These monarchy buildings were not only sign of dynastic power, wealth and prestige but considered an act of piety among muslim rulers.

§  In 1648,the capital was shifted to Shajahananbad on the bank of Yamuna river in Delhi.

§  It was a new addition to the old residential city of Delhi with Red Fort,the Jami Masjid,a tree-lined esplanade with bazaars(Chandni Chowk) and spacious homes for the nobility.

§  Shajahan’s new city was appropriate to a more formal vision of a grand monarchy.

 

v THE MUGHAL COURT


Ø MUGHAL EMPEROR’S COURT PROCEDURES

§  The Mughal court procedures reflected the status and power. The throne or takht was visualized as axis mundi i.e., pillar or pole supporting the Earth.

§  Canopy was a symbol of kingship.

§  The status of the courtiers was determined by spatial proximity to the king.


 

§  Once the emperor sat on the throne, no one was permitted to move from his position.

§  Defined etiquette has to be followed in the court with respect to the form of address, courtesies, speech etc.

§  The slightest infringement of etiquette was punishable on the spot.


Ø THE FORMS OF SALUTATION

§  In Mughal courts different forms of salutation were used as bowing deeply, Kornish (placed the palm of right hand against forehead and bent his head) ,clasping one’s hand in front of the chest, Sijda or complete prostration (Highest form of saluttation). During the reign of Shahjahan these were changed by Chahar taslim (four times submission) and Zaminbos (kissing the earth). 

§  These forms of salutation were indicators of a person’s status.

§  The diplomatic envoys or an ambassador also had to follow the norms of etiquettes at the Mughal court.

§  However, Thomas Roe the English envoy of James I greeted the Mughal emperor Jahangir according to European custom i.e., simply bowing before him. Moreover, he shocked the court by demanding a chair for sitting.

Ø DAILY ROUTINE OF THE EMPEROR

§  The emperor began his day at sunrise with personal religious devotions and prayers.

§  After that he appeared on a small balcony, for jharokha darshan in the morning where soldiers, merchants, crafts persons, peasants, and women with sick children waited for darshan of the emperor. Akbar introduced this practice of jharokha darshan.

§  Then, the emperor walked to the public hall of audience (diwan-i am) to conduct the primary business of his government. There state officials presented reports and made requests.

§  After two hours  the emperor went to diwan-i khas to discuss on confidential matters. There High ministers placed their petitions, tax officials presented their accounts, reputed artists presented their work and building plans of the architects (Mimar) were viewed by the emperor.


Ø FESTIVALS IN THE MUGHAL COURT

§  The Mughal Court was full of life on special occasions such as Id, Shab-i-barat (full moon night in the eighth month of the hijri

    calendar)  Holi and the anniversary of accession to the throne.

§  Mughal rulers celebrated three festivals a year – the solar and lunar birthdays of the king and nauroz.

§  The king weighed against the commodities, on his birthdays, and they were distributed in charity.

§  Perfumed candles set in rich holders and palace walls festooned with colourful hangings made a tremendous impression on visitors.

§  Weddings were celebrated lavishly in the imperial household. In 1633 the wedding of Dara Shukoh and Nadira, the daughter of Prince Parwez, was arranged in a very grand way.

v TITLE AND GIFTS

Ø The Mughal rulers adopted grand titles at the time of coronation or victory in the war. These titles were mentioned on the Mughal coins.

Ø The Mughal granted titles to men of merit. The position of men traced through these titles. The titles could be earned or paid. The main titles were as-

 

§  The title Asaf khan was given to highest minister. This title came from a legendary minister of the prophet king Sulaiman.

§  The title of Mirza Raja was accorded by Aurangzeb to his two nobles of merit e.g Jai Singh and Jaswant Singh.

Ø There are also some other awards

§  Robe of honour, (khilat)- A garment worn by the emperor

§  Sarapa(head to foot)- It consisted of a tunic, a turban and a sash (patka) and Jwellery were given by the emperor.

§  The lotus blossom set with jewels (padma murassa) was given.

Ø A courtier should offered either a small sum of money (nazr) or a large amount (peshkash)while approaching to the Emperor.It was regarded as a sign of honour and respect in diplomatic relations.

Ø Gifts had an important symbolic role. Thomas Roe, an English ambassador was disappointed to find that the ring presented by him as a gift to Asaf Khan was returned as it was worth merely 400 rupees.

 

v THE ROYAL HOUSEHOLD

Ø The domestic world of the Mughal was referred to as ‘harem’. It is a Persian word meaning a sacred place.

Ø Harem consisted of the wives of emperors and concubines, his relatives and other family members. It also had servants both male and female slaves.

Ø The Mughal rulers maintained a distinction between wives with aristocratic backgrounds (Begums) and other wives (aghas) who were not noble by birth.

Ø The Begums were married by the emperors after giving huge amounts of cash and other precious things as dowry (mahr).Concubines (agacha) were given monthly allowances and gifts according their status.

Ø The aghas and aghachas could rise to the position of a begum depending upon the husband’s will.

Ø There were a number of male and female slaves in the Mughal household. They performed various tasks which required skill, tact and intelligence.

Ø Slave eunuchs (Khwajasara) served as guards and servants and also as agents for women selling goods.

v ROLE OF MUGHAL QUEEN AND PRINCESSES

Ø After Nur Jahan, the queens of Mughal rulers and princesses began to control important official resources.

Ø JAHANARA AND ROSHANARA

§  They were daughters of Shah Jahan.

§  They also receive the salary of high manasbdar.

§  Jahanara also receive revenue from the port city of Surat.

§  Jahanara took special interest in many architectural projects of Shah Jahan in founding new capital, Shajahanabad(Delhi).

§  Among these projects was the construction of imposing double storeyed Caravanserai with a courtyard and a garden. The bazaar of Chandini Chowk,the main centre of trade in Shajahanabad,was designed by Jahanara.

Ø GULBADAN

§  Humayun’s sister Gulbadan wrote an interesting book “Humayunama” giving glimpses of domestic world of the Mughals.

§  She could write fluently in Turkish and Persian.When Akbar ordered Abul Fazl to write a history of his reign, he requested his aunt to record her memoirs of earlier times under Babur and Humayun.

§  Gulbadan did not write the eulogy of the Mughal emperors. She rather described the conflicts and tensions among the princes and kings and the mediating role of the elderly women of the family played in resolving some of these conflicts.

 

v IMPERIAL OFFICIALS IN THE MUGHAL EMPIRE

 

v RECRUITMENT OF OFFICIALS

Ø The Akbar Nama of Abul Fazl provides detailed information about the recruitments of imperial officials.

Ø The corps of officers, known as nobility, in the Mughal Empire was recruited from diverse ethnic and religious groups.

Ø The imperial officers were described by the court historians as a bouquet of flowers (guldasta).

Ø During the rule of Akbar, for the imperial service, Iranian and Turani nobles were recruited.

Ø After 1560, the ruling groups of Indian origin entered in the imperial service The Rajaputs and the Indian Muslims(Shai khzadas).

Ø The first to join was a Rajput chief, Raja Bharmal Kachhwaha of Amber,to whose daughter Akbar got married.

Ø Aurangazeb appointed Rajputs to high positions,and under him the Marathas accounted for a sizebale number within the body of officers.

 

v RANK OF OFFICERS (MANSABDARI SYSTEM)

Ø The recruited officers for the service in the Mughal Empire were given ranks (mansabs) with two numerical designations. This system was known as mansabdari system which was introduced by Akbar.

§  Zat which was an indicator of the position in the imperial hierarchy and the salary of the official (mansabdar).

§  Sawar , term used to indicate the number of horsemen.

Ø In the 17th century, a mansabdar with 1,000 zat was ranked as noble (umara, a plural term for amir)

Ø NOBLES AND THEIR MILITARY SERVICES

§  The nobles participated in the military campaigns and served as officers of the empire in the provinces.

§  The military commanders recruited, equipped and trained the main wing of the Mughal army, i.e, the cavalry.

§  He maintained horses which were branded on the flank by

   the imperial mark (dagh).

§  By serving in the imperial offices the nobles acquired power, wealth and reputation.

Ø SELECTION TO THE MILITARY SERVICE

§  A person who wanted to enter in service, petitioned sent through a noble (Tajwiz) to the emperor.

§  If his application is suitable, a mansab was granted to him.

§  The pay master general (mri bakshi) stood in the open court nearby the emperor and gave the appointments or promotion orders which had its office seal and signature as well as those of the emperor.

§  There were two other important ministers at the centre: the diwan-I ala(finance minister) and Sadr-us sudur(minister of grants or madad-i-maash, and in charge of appointing local judges or qazis)

§  These three ministers occasionally came together as an advisory body, but were independent of each other.

§  Akbar with these and other advisors shaped the administrative, fiscal and monetary institutions of the empire.

§  There were also the reserved forces (Tainat-i-rakab) which can be deputed to province or military campaign. They have the responsibility for guarding the empire round the clock.

v SOURCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT MUGHAL COURT

Ø The keeping of exact and detailed records was a major concern of the Mughal administration.

Ø The mir bakshi supervised the corps of court writers (waqia nawis) who recorded all applications and documents presented to the court, and all imperial orders(farman).

Ø Agents (wakil)of nobles and regional rulers recorded the entire proceedings of the court under the heading “News from the Exalted Court”(Akhbarat-i-Darbar-i-Mualla) with the date of the court session (pahar).

Ø The akhbarat contained all kinds of information such as attendance at the court, grant of others and titles, diplomatic missions, presents received ,or the enquiries made by the emperor about the health of an officer.

Ø SPREAD OF INFORMATION

§  News reports and important official documents travelled across the length and breadth of the regions under Mughal rule by imperial post.

§  Round the clock relays of foot-runners (gasid or pathmar) carried paper rolled up in bamboo containers.

§  The emporer received reports from even distant provincial capitals within few days.

§  Agents of nobles posted outside the capital and Rajput princes and tributary rulers.

§  The empire was well connected by rapid information loop for public news.

v PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION OF THE MUGHAL

Ø The administration system of the provinces (subas) also had the same method like that of the centre.

Ø The governor or the subadar was the head of the provincial administration.  He had to report to the emperor directly.

Ø In the provinces ministers were assisted by their subordinates such as diwan,bhakshi and sadr).

Ø Each subha was divided into sarkars with the jurisdiction of faujdars (commandants).

Ø The local administration was looked after at the level of pargana (sub-district) by three officers-the qanungo( keeper of revenue records) the chaudhari-(in charge of revenue collection ) and the qazi.

Ø The administration of each department was maintained by many staff of clerks, accountants, auditors, messengers and other functionaries with good technical skills with highly standardized rules and procedures.

Ø Persian was the language of administration, but local languages were used for village administration.

Ø Though the chroniclers portrayed the Emperor as controlling the entire administration from center to village level. But as we have seen that Zamindars played very important role at village level.

 

v BEYOND THE FRONTIERS (RELATIONS WITH OTHER)

 

v CLAIM OF CHRONICLERS

Ø The Mughal Emperors assumed many high sounding titles such as Shahenshah(King of kings), Jahangir (world Seizer), Shah Jahan (king of world) and Aurangazeb Alamgir(ruler of the world).

Ø These titles indicate the claims of the Mughal Emperors to uncontested territorial and political control.

Ø The contemporary historians in their accounts describe the political relations and conflicts of the Mughal rulers with their neighboring political powers.

v QANDAHAR- SAFAVIDS OF IRAN

Ø The relation between Mughals and neighbouring countries of Iran and Turan depends upon the control of Hindukus Mountain which separated Afghanistan from India.

Ø The fortress town of Qandahar was always a bone of contention between the Safavids of Iran and the Mughals.

Ø Initially Qandahar had been in the possession of Humayun. It was reconquered by Akbar in 1595.

Ø While the safavid rulers staked claims on Qandahar but they did not break their diplomatic relations with the Mughals.

Ø Jahangir sent a diplomatic mission to the court of Shah Abbas, the ruler of Iran, to plead the case for retaining Qandahar but the mission returned disappointed.

Ø In 1622,the Safavid ruler of Iran recovered Qandahar.

v RELATIONSHIP WITH OTTOMANS-

Ø The Mughal relations with Ottomans were marked by the concern to ensure free movements for merchants and pilgrims in the territories under Ottoman (Turkish) control.

Ø It was especially true of Hijaz which was situated in the ottoman Arabia where Mecca and Medina were located.

Ø The Mughal rulers combined religion and commerce by exporting valuable articles to Aden and Mokha, both Red sea ports and distributed proceeds of the sales in charity to the keepers of shrines and religious me there.

v RELATIONS WITH EUROPEANS

v VISITS OF THE JESUITS TO THE MUGHAL COURT

Ø After 1498, Portuguese merchants were able to establish trading stations in Indian coastal cities.

Ø The king of Portugal was interested in trade with India as well as in spreading Christianity with the help of missionaries of the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits.

Ø Mughal Emperor Akbar was interested in knowing about Christianity and dispatched an embassy to Goa to invite Jesuit priests.

Ø The mission of Jesuit under the leadership of Padre Rudolf Acquaviva visited the Mughal court in 1580 at Fatehpur Sikri. The Jesuits discussed with Akbar about the virtues of Christianity and with the ulama.

Ø Two more missions visited in the Mughal court at Lahore in 1591 and 1595.

Ø The Jesuits account provides detailed information about the character and mind of the emperor.

Ø They told that they were given very close seat to the emperor at public assemblies. They went along with the emperor at the time of campaigns and accompanied him during his leisure time.

 

v QUESTIONING FORMAL RELIGION

Ø The respect given to the Jesuits members was marked by the European scholars that Akbar was interested in Christianity.

Ø Akbar participated in the debates held in the Ibadat khana at Fatehpur Sikri in order to have a clear understanding of religions.

Ø Debates were held among learned Muslims, Hindus, Jainas, Parsis, and Christians.

Ø Akabr’s religious views matured by questioning the scholars of different religions and sects and gathered knowledge about their doctrines.

Ø Incourse of time, he moved away from the orthodox Islamic ways of understanding religions and followed a self-conceived eclectic form of worship focusing on light and the sun.  

    

 

v IMPORTANT POINTS

v Mughals belonged two linage

Ø From Mother side - Mongol

Ø from father -Timurieds

v Mughals were chaghtai Turks by origin and Turkish was their mother tongue.

v Mughal Rulers

Ø         Zahiruddin Babur (1526-30)

Ø         Nasiruddin Humayun (1530-40, 1555-56)

Ø     Jalaluddin Akbar

Ø     Jahangir (1605-27)

Ø     Shajahan (1628-58)

Ø     Aurangzeb or Alamgir (1658-1707)

Ø Last Mughal ruler- Bahadur Shah Zafar II after revolt 1857 and sent him to exile to Rangoon.

v FAMOUS CHRONICLES-

Ø Babur Nama- Zahiruddin Babur

Ø Akbar Nama-Abul Fazal

Ø Humayunama- Gulbadan Begum

Ø Shajahan Nama –Inayat Khan

Ø Jahagirnama(Tuzk-I Jahangiri)-Jahangir

Ø Badshahnama-Abdul Hamid Lahori

Ø Alamgir Nama –Muhammad Qazim

Ø Muntakhab-ut Tawarikh- Abdul Qadir Badauni

v Kitabkhana- It was a place or scriptorium where emperor’s collection of manuscript was kept

v Artist- Bihzad, Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdal Samad

v Sir William Jones founded The Asiatic Society of Bengal

v Akbar abolished the tax on pilgrimage in 1563 and jiziya in 1564

v Muhammad Husayn of Kashmir (c.1575-1605), one of the finest  calligraphers at Akbar’s court, who was honoured with the title “zarrin qalam” (golden pen)

v A diachronic account traces developments over time, whereas a synchronic account depicts one or several situations at one particular moment or point of time.

v Kornish was a form of ceremonial salutation in which the courtier placed the palm of his right hand against his forehead and bent his head. It suggested that the subject placed his head – the seat of the senses and the mind – into the hand of humility, presenting it to the royal assembly.

v Shab-i barat is the full moon night on the 14 Shaban, the eighth month of the hijri calendar, and is celebrated with prayers and fireworks in the subcontinent. It is the night when the destinies of the Muslims for the coming year are said to be determined and sins forgiven.

v Tajwiz was a petition presented by a nobleman to the emperor, recommending that an applicant be recruited as mansabdar.

 Socialsciencehistoryxii.blogspot.com will try to provide good and complete notes of each lesson in simple language. If you like this post write down in comment box, share to your friends as well as students and follow my blog for more updates.

PERSIAN TERMS

MEANING

1. Mir bakshi

Pay master general

Diwan-I ala

Minister of grants or finance minister)

Sadr-us sudur(or Madad-i-maash,

in charge of appointing local judges or qazis)

Guldasta (bouquet of flowers)

The imperial officers were described by the court historians as a

Khilat

Robe of honour- A garment worn by the emperor

padma murassa)

The lotus blossom set with jewels

Sarapa(head to foot)

It consisted of a tunic, a turban and a sash (patka) and Jwellery were given by the emperor

Tainat-i-rakab

Reserved forces

Mimar

Architects

Dagh

Branded on the flank by the imperial mark.

Takht

The throne

Axis mundi

pillar or pole supporting the Earth.

Subas

Provinces

Faujdars

Commandants).

Pargana

Sub-district

Qanungo

keeper of revenue records

Chaudhari.

In charge of revenue collection

Harem’

Domestic world of the Mughal was referred to as

Khwajasara

Slave eunuchs

Agacha

Concubines

Mahr

Dowry

Chahar taslim

Four times submission)

Zaminbos

Kissing the earth

Sijda

complete prostration

Life

Mal

Namus

Din

Jan

Property

Honour

Faith

Jashn-i wazn

Tula dan

 

. Socialsciencehistoryxii.blogspot.com will try to provide good and complete notes of each lesson in simple language. If you like this post write down in comment box, share to your friends as well as students and follow my blog for more updates.

 

 

 

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