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Wednesday, 27 April 2022








Ø As we know that the Earth’s crust is made up of different minerals embedded in the rocks. Various metals are extracted from these minerals after proper refinement.

Ø Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship, all are made from minerals.

Ø  Even the food that we eat contains minerals. In all stages of development, human beings have used minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivities, religious and ceremonial rite.


Ø Any natural mass of mineral matter that makes up the earth’s crust is called a rock. Some rocks consist of a single mineral, e.g., limestone while most rocks consist of several minerals.

Ø The naturally occurring substances which have certain physical properties and definite chemical composition are known as minerals. They are found in various forms hard to soft. Although, over 2000 minerals have been identified, only a few are abundantly found.

Ø Minerals are generally found in ores. An accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements is known as ores.


Minerals generally occur in these forms: -

Ø Veins and lodes: -

§  In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals may occur in the cracks, faults or joints.

§  The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger called as lodes.

§  Metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc and lead, etc. are found in lodes and veins.

Ø Beds and layers: -

§  In sedimentary rocks minerals occur in beds or layers.

§  They are formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata.

§  For example, Coal and some forms of iron ore, sandstone, limestone etc.

Ø Evaporation: -

§  Some sedimentary minerals are formed as a result of evaporation, especially in arid regions,

§  For example, gypsum, potash and salt etc.

Ø Decomposition of surface rocks: -

§  Some minerals formed due to decomposition of surface rocks and the removal of soluble contents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores.

§  Bauxite is formed this way.

Ø Placer deposits: -

§  Certain minerals occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills.

§  These are called placer deposits and contain minerals which are not corroded by water.

§  For example, gold, silver, tin and platinum etc.

Ø Through Ocean waters: -

§  Oceanic water contains vast quantities of minerals.

§  For example, common salt, magnesium and bromide etc.


Ø There are different ways by which minerals are extracted from the earth surface.

Ø The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth’s surface is called mining.

§  When the minerals lying at shallow depths and taken out by removing the surface layer is known as open-cast mining.  

§  When the minerals lying at large depths and taken out by deep bores (shaft) is known as shaft mining

§  In most of the tribal areas of the north-east India, minerals are owned by individuals or communities. In Meghalaya, there are large deposits of coal, iron ore, limestone and dolomite etc. Coal mining in Jowai and Cherapunjee is done by family member in the form of a long narrow tunnel, known as ‘Rat hole’ mining. NGT declare this as illegal activity.

Ø A method of extraction in which deep wells are bored to take out minerals is known as drilling.

Ø When minerals lying very close to the surface and extracted just by digging them out is called as Quarrying



Ø India is fairly rich in varied mineral resources. However, these are unevenly distributed because of differences in the geological structure, processes and time involved in the formation of minerals.

§  Peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other non-metallic minerals.

§  Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula, in Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits.

§  Rajasthan with the rock systems of the peninsula, has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals.

§  The vast alluvial plains of north India have very less minerals.



Ø The metallic minerals which have iron contain are known as ferrous minerals. They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries. Iron ore, manganese and Chromites etc.


Ø    Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development.  India is rich in good quality iron ores. There are four types of iron ores as: -
(i) Magnetite- It is the finest iron ore available with up to 70% iron content.

(ii) Hematite: - It is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of quantity used. It has 50-60% iron content.

(iii) Siderite

(iv) Limonite.


Ø Odisha-Jharkhand Belt:

§  In this belt iron mines of Badampahar of Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts in Odisha and Singbhum district of Jharkhand have high grade hematite ore.

Ø Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur Belt:

§  In this belt main mines are in Bailadila district of Chhattisgarh and Chandrapur of Maharashtra have high grade hematite ore deposits. Iron ore from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea through Vishakhapatnam port

Ø Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur Tumkur Belt

§  This belt is in Karnataka, main mines is Kudremukh (horse face) Mines — A 100 per cent export unit. The ore is transported as slurry to a port near Mangalore.

Ø Maharashtra-Goa Belt:

§  In this belt Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra—Ores are not of very high quality. Iron ore is exported through Marmagao port.


Ø It is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy.

Ø Nearly 10 kg of manganese is required to manufacture one tonne of steel.

Ø It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides and paints.

Ø Manganese is found in Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat), Odisha (Sundergarh, Kendujhar), Maharashtra (Nagpur, Bhandra) Karnataka (Shivmogga) Goa etc.


Ø The metallic minerals which did not have iron contain are known as non-ferrous minerals.

Ø They also provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries, engineering and electrical industries.

Ø For example, copper, bauxite, lead, zinc and gold etc.


Ø India is critically deficient in the reserve and production of copper.

Ø Being malleable, ductile and a good conductor, copper is mainly used in

§  Electrical cables,

§  Electronics

§  Chemical industries.

Ø The Balaghat mines and Malanjkhand in Madhya Pradesh, Khetri mines in Rajasthan and Singhbhum district of Jharkhand are leading producers of copper.


Ø Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminum silicates.

Ø From this bauxite ore, Alumina is obtained later on Aluminium is produced.

Ø It is an important metal because—

§  It has the strength of metals such as iron.

§  It is extremely also light.

§  It has good conductivity.

§  It has great malleability also.

Ø Leading State of bauxite production is Odisha, producing 45% of the total bauxite of India. The most important bauxite deposits are found in Panchpatmali in Koraput district, Madhya Pradesh (Amarkantak, Katni)
Chhattisgarh (Bilaspur, Maikala), Gujarat, Jharkhand etc.



§  Mica is made up of a series of plates or leaves. It splits easily into very thin sheets.

§  Mica is indispensable for electric and electronic industry because it has

·      Excellent di-electric strength.

·      Low power loss factor.

·      Insulating properties.

·      Resistance to high voltage.

§  Mica deposits are found in the northern edge of Chhota Nagpur Plateau. Jharkhand is the leading producer. The important mica producing belt here is Koderma-Gaya-Hazaribagh, Rajasthan ( Ajmer, Beawar) Andhra Pradesh (Nellore)


Ø It is found in sedimentary rocks of geological formations

Ø It is found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates.

Ø Limestone is the basic raw material for the cement industry and essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.

v HAZARDS OF MINING (Killer Industry)

Ø The risk of collapsing mines roofs.

Ø Inundation, i.e., flooding in mines.

Ø Fires in coal-mines is a constant threat to miners.

Ø Poisonous gases, dust and noxious fumes inhaled by miners make them vulnerable to pulmonary diseases.

Ø Mining also affected the environment as:

§  The water sources in the region get contaminated.

§  Dumping of the slurry and waste leads to degradation of land and soil.

§  It also leads to an increase in stream and river pollution.


Ø Use of mineral in a judicious way so that wastage of mineral can be minimise is known as conservation of minerals. It is very important to conserve the mineral because: -

§  The formation of minerals takes a long geological period of millions of years.

§  They are finite in nature, non-renewable and exhaustible.

§  The rate of replenishment of minerals is infinitely small in comparison to rate of consumption.

§  They have to be preserved for our future generations.


Ø We should use minerals in a planned and sustainable manner.

Ø Improved technologies need to be evolved to allow use of low-grade ores at low cost.

Ø Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes.

Ø Wastages in mining, processing and distribution should be minimized.

Ø Controlled export of minerals.


Ø In present time energy is required for various activities as to cook, to provide light and heat, to propel vehicles and to drive machinery in industries etc.


Ø Energy resources can be classified as conventional and non-conventional sources.

Conventional sources 

Non-Conventional sources 

The energy resources which are used from earlier time.

The energy resources which are started to use from recent time.

These are mostly not eco-friendly.

These energy resources are mostly eco-friendly.

To obtained the energy from these resources no need of technology.

To obtained the energy from these resources high technology is required.

It includes coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity (both hydel and thermal)

These include solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas and atomic energy.


Ø Coal provides a substantial part of the nation’s energy needs as it is abundantly available. It is used for power generation, to supply energy for industrial and domestic needs. India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial needs. Its share in total—67%. It can easily be converted into other forms of energy—electricity, gas, oil, etc. Coal is very important for industrial raw material as

§  It is an indispensable raw material for iron and steel industry.

§  It provides raw material for chemical industries and synthetic textile industries.

§  Many coal-based products are processed in industries, e.g., coal tar, graphite, soft coke, etc.

§  Power generation industry is mainly based on this fossil fuel.


Ø Coal is formed due the compression of plant material over millions of years. So, it is found in a variety of forms depending on the degrees of compression, depth and time of burial. According to this it can be classify into these for types: -

Ø Anthracite

§  It is the highest quality hard coal.

§  It contains more than 80% carbon content.

§  It gives less smoke.

Ø Bituminous

§  It is the most popular coal in commercial use and has 60-80% carbon content.

§  Metallurgical coal is high grade bituminous coal and is of special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces.

Ø Lignite

§  It is a low-grade brown coal.

§  It is soft with high moisture content.

§  The main lignite reserve is Neyveli in Tamil Nadu.

Ø Peat: -

§  It has a low carbon and high moisture content.

§  It has low heating capacity and gives lot of smoke on burning.


Ø In India coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages: -

§  Gondwana Coal Belt: -A little over 200 million years in age. Mainly metallurgical coal is found in: Damodar Valley Belt (West Bengal, Jharkhand) which contains important coal mines of Jharia, Raniganj and Bokaro, The Godavari Valley Belt, The Mahanadi Valley Belt, and Wardha Valley Belt.

§  Tertiary coal: - Its deposits are only about 55 million years old, i.e., they are comparatively younger. They occur in North-Eastern States, namely Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.


Ø It is the second most important energy source of India after coal.

Ø It can be easily trans-ported by pipelines and does not leave any residue.

Ø It provides fuel for heat and light. It provides lubricants for machinery.

Ø It provides raw material for a number of manufacturing industries.

Ø It is an important fuel used in transportation sector.

Ø Petroleum refineries act as a ‘nodal industry’ for synthetic textiles, fertilizers and many chemical industries.


Ø Petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age.

Ø In regions of folding anticlines, it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the upfold.

Ø The oil-bearing layer is porous limestone or sandstone through which oil may flow.

Ø Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks.


Ø Mumbai High—It is an offshore oilfield and is the richest oilfield of India. Its share is about 63% of India’s petroleum production.

Ø Gujarat—It produces 18% petroleum of India. Ankaleshwar is the most important field.

Ø Assam—It is the oldest oil producing State of India. Its contribution in the total production is 16%. Important oilfields are Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan.


Ø Natural gas is an important clean energy resource found in association with or without petroleum.

Ø It is used as a source of energy as well as an industrial raw material in the petrochemical industry.

Ø Natural gas is considered an environment friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions and is, therefore, the fuel for the present century.


Ø Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna-Godavari basin.

Ø Along the west coast the reserves of the Mumbai High.

Ø Other fields included in the Gulf of Cambay, Andaman and Nicobar islands are also important areas having large reserves of natural gas.


Ø The 1700 km long Hazira-Vijaipur- Jagdishpur cross country gas pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassien.

Ø It links the fertilizer, power and industrial complexes in western and northern India.

Ø Use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG ) for vehicles to replace liquid fuels is gaining wide popularity in the country.


Ø Electricity has such a wide range of applications in today’s world that, its percapital consumption is considered as an index of development. Electricity is generated mainly in two ways:-

§  Hydal power - Generation of electricity by running water through turbine is known as hydroelectric. It is a renewable resource. India has a number of multi-purpose projects like the Bhakra Nangal, Damodar Valley corporation, the Kopili Hydel Project etc to producing hydroelectric power.

§  Thermal power :-Burning the fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas is used to drive turbines to produce thermal power. The thermal power stations use non-renewable fossil fuels for generating electricity. Some thermal power station are  Korba(Chhattisgarh), Talchar (Odisha), Neyveli (Tamilnadu), Baurani (Bihar), Singrauli (MP) etc.


v Nuclear Energy:

Ø Nuclear energy is obtained by altering the structure of atom.

Ø When the structure of an atom is altered, too much energy is released in the form of heat.

Ø This heat is utilised to generate electric power.

Ø Uranium and Thorium are used for generating atomic power. These minerals are available in Jharkhand, Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan.

Ø Nuclear Power plants: -

§  Tarapur (Maharashtra)

§  Rawat Bhatta (Rajasthan)

§  Narora (UP)

§  Kakra Para(Gujarat)

§  Kaiga (Karnataka)

§  Kalpakkam, Kundankulam ( Tamilnadu)

v Solar Energy:

Ø Photovoltaic technology is used to convert solar energy into electricity.

Ø The largest solar plant of India is located at Madhapur near Bhuj.

Ø Solar energy holds great promises for the future.

Ø It can help in minimizing the dependence on firewood and animal dung cakes in rural areas.

Ø This will also help in conservation of fossil fuels.

v Wind Power:

Ø The wind farm cluster in Tamil Nadu (from Nagarcoil to Madurai) is the largest cluster in India.

Ø Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and

Ø Lakshadweep are also important centres of wind power production. India is now a “Wind Super Power” in the world.

v Biogas:

Ø Biogas can be produced from shrubs, farm waste, and animal and human waste.

Ø It is more efficient than kerosene, dung cake and charcoal.

Ø  Biogas plants can be set up at municipal, cooperative and individual levels.

Ø The gobar gas plants provide energy and also manure.

v Tidal Energy:

Ø Dams are built across inlets. The water flows into the inlet during high tide and gets trapped when the gate is closed.

Ø Once the tide recedes, the floodgates are opened so that water can flow back to the sea.

Ø The flow of water is used to run the turbine to generate electricity.

Ø A 900 mw tidal energy power plant is set up by the National Hydropower Corporation in the Gulf of Kuchchh.

v Geo Thermal Energy:

Ø We know that the inside of the earth is very hot.

Ø At some places, this heat is released on the surface through fissures.

Ø Groundwater in such areas becomes hot and rises up in the form of steam.

Ø This steam is used to drive turbines.

Ø Two geo thermal energy projects—

§  The Parvati valley near Manikam in Himachal Pradesh

§  The Puga valley in Ladakh.


Ø Energy is required for all activities. It is needed to cook, to provide light and heat, to propel vehicles and to drive machinery in industries.

Ø It is the basic requirement for economic development.

Ø Every sector of national economy—agriculture, industry, transport and commerce need greater inputs of energy. Energy demands, in the form of electricity, are growing because of increasing use of electrical gadgets and appliances.


Ø Using more of public transport system instead of individual vehicles.

Ø Switching off electrical devices when not in use, using power saving devices.

Ø Using non-conventional sources of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, etc.

Ø Getting the power equipment regularly checked to detect damages and leakages.


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