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Monday, 25 April 2022






Ø Trees, grass, lichen, mosses, etc. that grow naturally without human interference constitute natural vegetation.
Ø The type and thickness of natural vegetation varies from place to place because of the variation in these factors: -
§  Temperature
§  Rainfall and Moisture
§  Thickness of soil
§  Slop
Ø Natural vegetation can be categorised into three categories: -
§  Forest- Grow in high rainfall areas.
§  Grassland- Grows in moderate rainfall areas.
§  Thorny bushes- Grows in dry areas.
§  Tundra- Grows in snow fall areas.
Ø Forests grow where temperature and rainfall are plentiful to support a tree cover. Forests may be dense and open.
Ø Forests can be classified into these six types:
Ø Tropical Evergreen,
Ø Tropical Deciduous,
Ø Temperate Evergreen,
Ø Temperate Deciduous,
Ø  Mediterranean Vegetation,
Ø Coniferous forests.

v Tropical Evergreen Forests
Ø They are very dense and are found in the regions near the equator and close to the tropics.
Ø The trees in this forest don’t shed their leave altogether, so they appear green almost the years so known as evergreen forests. They also known as tropical rainforests.
Ø Hardwood trees such as rosewood, ebony, mahogany etc. are common here.
Ø Tropical rainforest of Brazil are so dense that they are called as lungs of the Earth. World largest snake, Anaconda found in these forest.
v Tropical Deciduous Forests
Ø These are also called as monsoon forests.
Ø They shed their leaves in the dry season to conserve water.
Ø They are found in the large part of India, Northern Australia and in Central America.
Ø Trees like sal, teak, neem and shisham are found here. They are used in making furniture.
Ø Tigers, lions, elephants, langoors and monkeys are the common animals of these regions.
v Temperate Evergreen Forests
Ø Temperate evergreen forests are commonly found along the eastern margin of the continents.
Ø In these forests both hard and softwood trees such as oak, pine, eucalyptus, etc. are found.
v Temperate Deciduous Forests
Ø Temperate deciduous forests are found in the north eastern part of USA, China, New Zealand and Chile.
Ø They shed their leaves in the dry season.
Ø Trees like oak, ash, beech etc. and animals like deer, foxes, wolves are common in these forests.
Ø Birds like pheasants, monals are also found here.
v Mediterranean Vegetation
Ø Mediterranean vegetation is mostly found in the areas around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Ø They also found outside the actual Mediterranean region in California in the USA, south west Africa, south western South America and South west Australia
Ø Mediterranean vegetation is mainly comprised of citrus fruits such as oranges, figs, olives and grapes. So, this region is known as ‘Orchards of the world.
Ø These forest regions have hot dry summers and mild rainy winters.
v Coniferous Forests
Ø Coniferous forests are also known as Taiga.
Ø These forests are found in the higher latitudes of Northern hemisphere.
Ø The trees are tall, softwood evergreen trees. Chir, pine, cedar is an important variety of trees in these forests. The woods of these trees are very useful for:-
§  For making pulp, which is used to manufacturing paper and newsprint.
§  For making Match boxes.
§  For making packing boxes.
Ø Animals such as silver fox, mink, polar bear are common here.
Ø Grasslands are found in the regions of moderate rainfall. They are of two types: -

Tropical Grasslands

Temperate Grasslands

It occurs on either side of the equator and extend till the tropics.

Temperate Grasslands are found in mid-latitudes.

        This grass can grow very tall, about

         3 to 4 metres in height.

The grass is usually short and nutritious.

           Elephants, zebras, giraffes, deer, leopards are common in tropical grasslands (Fig.

Wild buffaloes, bisons, antilopes are common in the temperate region.

East Africa- Savanna

Brazil- Campos

Venezuela- Llanos

Argentina- Pampas

N. America- Prairie

S. Africa- Veld

C. Asia- Steppe

Australia- Down

Ø Thorny bushes are found in west margin of continents or dry deserts.
Ø These are found in areas with scanty rain and scorching heat.
Ø Here the trees as acacia, palm, dates, babool, kikar etc.
Ø It is found in polar areas.
Ø Mosses, lichens and very small Shrubs are found in cold regions. This is called tundra type vegetation.

Ø The animals of this region have thick fur and long hair and thick skin to protect themselves from the cold climatic conditions.
Ø Seal, walruses, musk-oxen, Arctic owl,  polar bear are common here.
Ø Taiga: - It means pure or untouched in the Russian language.
Ø Rhododendrons: -These are tall trees with blooms of bright flowers on tall trees. These are found in higher altitude. It is the state flower of Uttarakhand.


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