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Wednesday, 17 November 2021

HISTORY (VIII)- LESSON-6 WEAVERS, IRON SMELTERS AND FACTORY OWNERS (QUESTION ANSWERS

 

 

HISTORY (VIII)- LESSON-6

WEAVERS, IRON SMELTERS AND FACTORY OWNERS

(QUESTION ANSWERS

 

 

 

(NCERT QUESTION ANSWERS)

1. What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?

ANS . Cotton and Silk had a large market in Europe. Different varieties of Indian textiles were sold in European markets:

a.     Chintz

b.    Cossaes or Khasa

c.     Bandanna

d.    Jamdani

Indian printed cotton textiles were also famous in England for their exquisite floral designs, fine textures and inexpensiveness.

2. What is jamdani?

Answer.

Jamdani is a fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on the loom, typically in grey and white. Often a mixture of cotton and gold thread was used, as in the cloth in this picture. The most important centres of jamdani weaving were Dacca in Bengal and Lucknow in the United Provinces.

3. What is bandanna?

Answer.

Bandannas are any brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. Originally, the term derived from the word “bandhna” (Hindi for tying) and referred to a variety of brightly coloured cloth produced through a method of tying and dying.

4. Who are the Agaria?

Answer.

A group of men and women forming a community of iron smelters.

5. Fill in the blanks:

(a) The word chintz comes from the word _________.

(b) Tipu’s sword was made of_________ steel.

(c) India’s textile exports declined in the _________ century.

Answer.

(a) The word chintz comes from the word chhint.

(b) Tipu’s sword was made of wootz steel.

(c) India’s textile exports declined in the nineteenth century.

6. How do the names of different textiles tell us about their histories?

Answer.

The different textiles like ‘muslin’, ‘chintz’, ‘calico’ and ‘bandanna’ have a history to their names:

a. Muslin – The cloth was named after the European traders who saw five types of cotton textiles carried by the Arab traders in Mosul. They named all woven textiles as ‘muslin’ after that.

b. Chintz – This name is derived from a Hindi name called ‘Chhint’ which is a small piece of cloth with floral designs.

c. Calico – Portuguese came to Calicut first in search of spices. However, the cotton textile they took back from Calicut to Spain was called Calico.

d. Bandanna – The term was derived from the Hindi word ‘Bandhna’. It is a scarf with prints. It is made for head or neck.

7. Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century?

Answer.

The wool and silk producers in England protested against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century because due to the fame of Indian textiles in the European markets owing to their designs and their prices, they were unable to compete with them. The English wool and silk producers wanted a ban on Indian textiles so that they could grow in England. Following this, the spinning jenny was also introduced in the European markets.

8. How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?

Answer.

There were several challenges for textile produces in India:

a. They had to compete with English cotton industries both in England and in India

b. British cotton industries expanded, which led to the shrinkage of Indian textile producers.

c. Thousands of Indian textile producers were out of employment because the British took over the market with their industries.

9. Why did the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?

Answer.

These are the following reasons that led to the decline of the iron smelting industry in the nineteenth century:

a. Indian smelters could not get Charcoal due to the forest laws imposed on them. Charcoal is an essential ingredient in the iron smelting process, and the industry could not thrive without its supply. The forest laws banned their movement in the reserved forests.

b. Iron smelters were asked to pay high taxes to the forest authorities.

c. Post-1950s, the English started importing iron from England to India. This discouraged Indian iron smelters from pursuing the same profession.

d. In late-nineteenth-century, many famines destroyed dry tracts for iron smelters.

e. Iron industries posed the biggest challenge for the local iron smelters who were not able to compete with the big industries.

10. What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?

Answer.

The problems are given below:

a. Competition – They had to face large British industries who were already present in the market.

b. Export – It was a challenge for them to export to England due to the huge export prices.

c. Failure – English cotton textiles ousted Indian textiles from its parent markets like America, Africa and Europe.

d. No Buyers – Europeans started avoiding the weavers of Bengal and did not buy from them, which made the Bengal weavers the worst-hit.

11. What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War?

Answer.

The following reasons led to TISCO expansion:

a. World War-I – The war demanded a huge amount of iron and steel for the production of ammunition, which was a demand that Britain had to entertain.

b. Indian markets turned to TISCO for rail work to supply iron and steel.

c. TISCO built shells and carriage wheels for World War-I

d. By 1919, the British government started buying 90 per cent of the steel manufactured by the TISCO

 

OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

 

Question 1. Choose the correct option:


(i) One of the most important Indian ports of the 17th century.
(a) Bombay
(b) Madras
(c) Surat
(d) Vishakhapatnam

(ii) Bandana patterns were mostly produced in
(a) Rajasthan and Gujarat
(b) Rajasthan and Orissa
(c) Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh
(d) Chhattisgarh and West Bengal

(iii) The job of a rangrez was to
(a) Weave cloth
(b) Dye thread
(c) Transport goods to. the markets
(d) Spin thread on the charkha

(iv) The first cotton mill in India was established in
(a) Gujarat
(b) Bombay
(c) Madras
(d) West Bengal

(v) Wootz steel was produced all over
(a) South India
(b) North India
(c) Central India
(d) North-east India

Answer:
(i)(c), (ii)(a), (iii)(b), (iv)(b), (v)(a)

Question 2. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence.

1.    The cotton textiles which the Portuguese took back to Europe, along with the spices came to be known as …………..

2.    The …………….. was invented by John Kaye which increased the of the traditional spindles.

3.    Weavers often belonged to communities that specialized in ……………..

4.    ………….. and ………………. emerged as important new centres of weaving in the late 19th century.

5.    Indian Wootz steel fascinated ………………. scientists.

6.    The Tata Iron and Steel factory is situated on the banks of the river …………..

7.    TISCO had to expand its capacity and extend the size of its factory to meet the demands of the …………..

Answer:

1.    Calico

2.    Spinning Jenny

3.    weaving

4.    Sholapur; Madurai

5.    European

6.    Subamarekha

7.    war

Question 3. State whether each of the following statements is True or False.

1.    From the 1850s, Britain came to be known as the ‘workshop of the world’.

2.    The invention of the spinning jenny and steam engine revolutionized cotton textile weaving in England.

3.    European trading companies such as the Dutch, the French, and the English purchased cotton and silk textiles in India by importing diamonds.

4.    Men were usually involved in the work of spinning.

5.    Iron smelting in India was extremely common until the end of the 19th century.

6.    The Tata Iron and Steel Company began to produce steel after the First World War.

Answer:

1.    True

2.    True

3.    False

4.    False

5.    True

6.    False

Question 1. Give two reasons why Indian textiles were renowned all over the world.
Answer: Their fine quality and beautiful craftsmanship made them renowned all over the world.

Question 2. Why were printed Indian cotton textiles I popular in England?
Answer: Printed Indian cotton textiles were popular in England for their exquisite floral designs, fine texture and relative cheapness.

Question 3. During which period patola weaving was famous?
Answer: It was famous during the mid-19th century.

Question 4. Name the origin of the word calico.
Answer: Calicut.

Question 5. Name the important centres of jamdani weaving.
Answer: Dacca in Bengal and Lucknow in the United Provinces (U.P.).

Question 6. Name two places where chintz were produced during the mid-19th century.
Answer: Masulipatnam and Andhra Pradesh.

Question 7. How did European trading companies purchase cotton and silk textiles in India?
Answer: European trading companies purchased cotton and silk textiles in India by importing silver.

Question 8. Name the household spinning instrument.
Answer: Charkha and takli.

Question 9. What did Mahatma Gandhi urge people during the national movement?
Answer: During the national movement Mahatma Gandhi urged people to boycott imported textiles and use hand-spun and hand-woven cloth.

Question 10 . What became a symbol of nationalism?
Answer: Khadi became a symbol of nationalism.

Question 11. How did growth of cotton mills in the country prove to be a boon for the poor peasants, artisans and agricultural labourers?
Answer: They got work in the mills.

Question 12. How did Indian cotton factories prove to be helpful during the First World War?
Answer: They began to produce cloth for military supplies.

Question 13. Why was Tipu’s sword so special?
Answer: Tipu’s sword was made of Wootz steel. Wootz steel when made into swords produced a very sharp edge that could easily rip through the opponent’s armour.

Question 14. Why was the Wootz steel making process completely lost by the mid- 19th century?
Answer: There are two reasons for it:

1.    The sword and armour making industry died with the conquest of India by the British.

2.    Imports of iron and steel from England displaced the iron and steel produced by craftsmen in India.

Question 15. What were the furnaces made of?
Answer: The furnaces were made of clay and sun-dried bricks.

Question 16. Why were bellows used?
Answer: Bellows were used to keeping the charcoal burning.

Question 17. What were the piece goods?
Answer: Piece goods
were usually woven cloth pieces that were 20 yards long and 1 yard wide.

 

 

 

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