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Tuesday, 9 February 2021

HISTORY-(XII)THEME 4 THINKERS BELIEFS AND BUILDINGS (QUE ANS)

 

HISTORY-XII-THEME 4

THINKERS BELIEFS AND BUILDINGS

(QUE ANS)

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O.T.Q. (1 Marks)

 Q1. Write the name of Tripitika ?

Ans : Vinaya Pataka ,Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Patak

Q2. Who did provide money for the preservation of the Stupa of Sanchi.

Ans: Shahjahan Begum Sultan Jahan Begum

Q3: John Marshall dedicated his important volumes on Sanchi Stupas to whom ?

Ans: Sultan jahan

Q4: Jaina Teachers were known as

Ans: Tirthankaras.

Q5: Who was the first ‘ Bhikhuni ‘ in Buddhism or foster mother of Buddha?

Ans: Maha prajapati Gautami

 Q6: What was the birth place of Gautama Buddha.

Ans: Lumbini

Q7: Were did he attain enlightment.

Ans : Bodh Gaya

Q8: Where did he give his first seraman.

 Ans: Sarnath

Q 9: Where did he attain Nirvana ?

Ans: Kushi Nagar

Q10. Define Mahayana?

Ans : Mahayan: by the first century C.E. there is evidence of changes in Buddhist way of thinking, which was called Mahayana. Idol of Buddha was worshipped.

Q.11.Define Hinayana?

Ans.Hinayana: Those who adopted the older tradition were known Hinayana.

Q.12.What is Vaishnavism?

Ans.Vaishnavism is a sect of Hinduism within which Vishnu was worshipped as the principal deity.

Q.13.What is Shaivism?

Ans : Shaivism- A tradition within which shiva was regarded as the chief god.

Q.14.  What do you know about Tirthankars?

Ans. Those who guide men and women across the river of existence.

Q.15 What is Tripitaka?

Ans. After Buddha's Death his teachings were compiled by his disciples These compilations were known as Tripitaka.

Q.16. Begum of Bhopal built............... and funded the..............

Ans Museum and guest house

Q 17. Rigveda was compiled in which time period?

Ans 1500 to 1000 BCE

Q 18. Where the debate and discussion took place?

Ans. Kutagrashala

Q 19. Who was 24  tirthankara?

Ans. Vardhaman Mahavira

Q. 20 What was the earlier name of Gautam Buddha?

Ans. Siddartha

Q21. What do you mean by hagiography?

Ans. A biography of a saint or religious leader is known as hagiography.

Q. 22. Buddha teaching have been reconstructed from stories mainly found in...............

Ans. Suttapitaka

Q23. What were the last word to of Buddha?

Ans. “ Be lamp unto ourselves as all of you must work out your own liberation”

Q24. Describe the term theri’s?

Ans. Theories were women who entered in sangha and became teacher of Dhamma and attained liberation.

Q25. What is Chaitya?

Ans. It derived from the word Chita meaning funeral pyre and by extension a funerary mound.

Q26. What was the organisation of monks?

Ans. Sangha

Q27. Semi circular mound of earth is known as in stupas?

Ans ANDA

Q28. Rules of sangha are mentioned in which pitaka?

Ans. Vinaya pitaka

Q 29. Name the person who found sculptures of Amaravati ruins and made drawings?

Ans. Colin Mackenzie

Q30. Three symbols to show Buddha presence in Hinayana?

Ans. The empty seat, wheel , stupa, the tree

Q31. Write down two sect of Buddhism?

Ans. Hinyana or Thervada and Mahayana

Q32. Who was Walter Elliot?

Ans. He was the commissioner of Guntur who visited Amaravati and took many sculptures to Madras.

Q33. What does Shalabhanjika symbolise?

Ans. A women whose touches cause trees to flower and bear fruits.

Q34. Which temple is carved by a single piece of rock?

Ans. Kailashanath temple.

Q35. Where the record of donations for buildings stupas are found?

Ans. On railings and pillars

Q36. What do you mean by Harika and Yashti?

Ans. Harmika  A balcony like structure in stupa which represent abide of God.

Yashti  A mast arising from balcony surmounted by an umbrella in stupas.

Q37. Match the philosophers with their country

     (I) Zarathustra               (1) China

     (II) Kong zi                 (2) India

     (III) Socrates, plato, Aristotle    (3) Iran

     (IV) Mahavira                (4) Greece

Ans. (I)- (3), (II)-(1), (III)-(4), (IV)-(2)

Q 38. Tell any two elaborate sacrifice performed by kings.

Ans. Rajasuya, Ashwamedha

Q39. Jaina schoolers produced literature in which languages.

Ans. Prakrit, Tamil and Sanskrit.

Q40. Name the principal deities of Vedic tradition.

Ans Indra, Soma, Agni

Q41. Which God become popular in 600 AD.

Ans. Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesh, Durga

Q42. Who question on the authority of Vedas.

Ans. Buddha, and Mahavira

Q43. What was the key features of early religious tradition.

Ans. Sacrifice and hymns in praise of deities.

Q44. Buddhism spread in which countries.

Ans. China, Korea, Japan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar, Indonesia

Q45. Amaravati presently in which state and district.

Ans. Andhra Pradesh and Guntur district.

Q46. Who built the gate of Sanchi stupa.

Ans.  An association of Ivory workers.

Q 47. Theory of social contract belongs to which .

Ans. Buddhism

Q48. In which year Sanchi was declare a world heritage site?

Ans- 1989

Q.49. Who lays the foundation of National Museum and in which year?

Ans-Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru in 1955 in Delhi.

Q.50. First stupas were built around which period?

Ans-Third century BCE.

TIME LINE

1814

Founding of the Indian Museum, Calcutta

1834

Publication of Essay on the Architecture of the Hindus, by Ram Raja; Cunningham explores the stupa at Sarnath

1835-1842

James Fergusson surveys major archaeological sites

1851

Establishment of the Government Museum, Madras

1854

1854 Alexander Cunningham publishes Bhilsa Topes, one of the earliest works on Sanchi

1878

Rajendra Lala Mitra publishes Buddha Gaya: The Heritage of Sakya Muni

1880

H.H. Cole appointed Curator of Ancient Monuments

1888

Passing of the Treasure Trove Act, giving the government the right to acquire all objects of archaeological interest

1914

John Marshall and Alfred Foucher publish The Monuments of Sanchi

1923

John Marshall publishes the Conservation Manual

1955

Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru lays the foundation stone of the National Museum, New Delhi

1989

Sanchi declared a World Heritage Site

S. A. (3 Marks)

Q.1.What were the main principles of Jainism?

Ans.-         The entire world is animated

The cycle of birth and rebirth is shaped through karma.

Ahimsa is the supreme virtue of this religion .

Q.2. What do you understand of early Vedic Tradition?

Ans.- Early Vedic tradition known from the Rig-Veda compiled between c. 1500 and 1000 B.C.E.

- The Rig-Veda consists of hymns in praise of a variety of deities, especially Agni, Indra, and soma.

Q.3 What is the Jaina philosophy on birth and rebirth?

Ans.-     (i)     According to Jainism the Cycle of Birth and Rebirth is shaped through karma.

(ii) Asceticism and Penance are required to free oneself from this cycle.

(iii) This can be achieved only by renouncing the world.

Q 4. How do we know about the Buddha's Teachings?

Ans.- These have been reconstructed by carefully editing, translating and analysing the Buddna's texts mentioned earlier.

- Historians have also tried to reconstruct details of his life from hagiographies.

Q.5. What do you mean by Dharma Chakra Pravartana?

Ans.- Dharma Chakra Pravartana means to set in motion the wheel of Dharma; the first religious discourse of sermon delivered by Mahatma Buddha after attaining nirvana.

Q.6. Describe Hinayana and Manayana-

Ans : : by the first century C.E. there is evidence of changes in Buddhist way of thinking which was called Mahayana. Idol of Buddha was worshipped.Hinayana: Those who adopted the older tradition were known as Hinayana.

Q.7. What is vaishnavism and shaivism?

Ans. Vaishnavism is from Hinduism within which Vishnu was worshipped as the principal deity.

Shaivism- A tradition within which shiva was regarded as the chief god.

Q.8. What do you mean by the kutargarashala.

Ans.Teachers Travelled from Place to Place trying to convince one another as philosophy or the way they understand the world. Debates took place in the kutagarashala. Literally a hut with a pointed roof.

Q.9.Write causes for the popularity of Buddhism.

Ans.- Many people dissatisfied with existing religious practices and confused by the rapid social changes taking place around them.

- The importance to conduce and values rather than claims of superiority bases on Birth.

- Younger and weaker than one self were ideas that men and women to Buddhism were trained.

Q.10.Discuss the Role of the begums of Bhopal in preserving the stupa of Sanchi.

Ans.- Sahajan Begum and Sultan Jahan Begum provided money for the preservation of the ancient side.

- Sultan Jahan Begum funded the museum that was built - Guest house was provided where John Marshal wrote the volume.

- She also funded the publication of the volumes.

Q.11. Describe the unique features of the early temples.

- The First Temples to House images of gods and goddesses were also being built.

- The early temples were a small square room called the garbhagriha.

- A Tall structure, known as the shikhara.

- Temple walls were after often decorated with sculpure.

Q12.Why is the mid first millennium BCE is regarded as a turning point in world history?

Ans.- This time emergence of Zarathustra in Iran, Kongzi in china, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle in Greece

- Mahavira and Gautama Buddha among many others in India, tried to understand the mysteries of existence and the relationship between human beings and the cosmic order.

L. A. (8 Marks)

Q.28 Describe the factors that led to the growth of Puranic Hinduism in India During 6th century BCE.

Ans.- Concept of Saviour was not unique to Buddhism we find similar Ideas being developed in Hinduism.

- These included Vaishnavism and Shaivism.

- In such worship the bond between the devotee and the god was visualized as one of love and devotion or bhakti.

- Vaishnavism cults developed around the various avatars.

- Recognizing each of these local deities as a form of Vishnu.

- Shiva for instance was symbolized by the linga.

- To understand the meanings of sculptures. Historians have to be familiar with the stories.

- Women and shudras who did not have access to Vedic learning.

- Much of what is contained in the puranas evolved through int

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HISTORY (XI)- LESSON -7 CHANGING CULTURAL TRADITIONS (QUESTION ANSWERS)

  HISTORY (XI)- LESSON -7 CHANGING CULTURAL TRADITIONS   QUESTION ANSWERS ____________________________________________________________...