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Sunday, 16 August 2020

HISTORY (VI) LESSON- 3 IN THE EARLIEST CITIES (LESSON NOTES)


HISTORY (VI) LESSON- 3

IN THE EARLIEST CITIES

(LESSON NOTES)

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v INTRODUCTION

Ø As you know that monuments are very important sources to know about the past. So we should have conserved the historical buildings. This lesson tells not only about the ancient buildings but the earliest cities. These were established nearly 4700 years ago in this subcontinent but we come to know about them only after 1921, when the archaeologists excavated this region. This was declared one of the earliest civilizations.

 

v HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION

Ø In 1850’s the European had taken the bricks from a mound to lay down the railway tracks. They don’t bother that how these bricks come here.

Ø Later in 1921, there were large excavations took place in Sindh and Punjab in present-day Pakistan rediscovered these cities.

Ø These cities flourished since 3300 BC

Ø Initially these cities found along the bank of Indus Valley. But later on many cities found far from this river. So these cities known as the Harappan cities, on the name of first city which was rediscover.

 

v FEATURES OF HARAPPAN CITIES

v THE LAYOUT OF THE CITIES:

Ø The Harappan cities were divided into two parts: the citadel and the lower town.

Ø The area of citadel was small but located at a higher level and had special buildings.

 

Ø The lower town was the residential area for common people.

Ø Walls were fortified with bricks in interlocking patterns.

v SPECIAL BUILDINGS

Ø THE GREAT BATH

§  A large water tank called as the Great Bath found in Mohenjodaro.

§  It was built with bricks, coated with plaster, and made water-tight with a layer of natural tar.

§  There were steps from two sides and rooms on all sides.

§  Water was probably filled from well, and drained out after use.

§  It was used to take bath on special occasions.

Ø FIRE ALTARS

§  Fire alter are found in some cities like Kalibangan and Lothal where sacrifices may have been performed.

Ø STOREHOUSES

§  Some cities like Mohenjodaro, Harappa, and Lothal had large store house where the food grains had been stored.

v HOUSES

Ø Houses were either one or two storey’s high, with rooms built around a courtyard.

Ø Most houses had a separate bathing area, and some had wells to supply water.

Ø Houses, drains and streets — were probably planned and built at the same time.

v DRAINS

Ø Many of these cities had covered drains which laid out in straight lines.

Ø Each drain had a gentle slope so that water could flow easily.

Ø Drains of houses were connected to those on the streets and smaller drains led into bigger ones.

Ø The inspection holes were provided at intervals to clean them.

v STREETS

Ø Streets were laid out straight.

Ø They cut each other at right angles.

 

v PEOPLE IN THE CITIES

v RULERS

Ø In Harappa cities there were very important persons may be the rulers.

Ø They planned the constructions of special buildings.

Ø They also sent people to distant places to procure raw materials, metals and precious stones like gold, silver etc.

v SCRIBES

Ø Scribes were the people who knew very well about writing.

Ø They also prepare the seals.

v CRAFTS-PERSONS

Ø Archaeologists have found many terracotta toys in many cities.

Ø They were prepared by the craft persons.

Ø These things may prepared in houses or in workshops.

 

v CRAFTING IN HARAPPAN CITIES

Ø Archaeologists found many things in these cities which were made of stone, shell and metal likes copper, bronze, gold and silver.

Ø Copper and bronze were used to make tools, weapons, ornaments and vessels.

Ø Gold and silver were used to make ornaments and vessels.

Ø Beads were made by carnelian ,red stone and weights were made of chert.

 

Ø The Harappans also made seals out of stone. These are generally rectangular and usually have an animal carved on it.

Ø  Harappan also made pots with wonderful designs.

Ø Piece of Cloth and spindle whorls has founded by archaeologists which shows that they also make clothes. A statue of man also found which appear that he wear clothes.

Ø These were done by specialists may be both men and women. 

v GETTING ROW MATERIALS

Ø Raw materials are substances that are either found naturally (such as wood, or ores of metals) or produced by farmers or herders

Ø These required producing finished goods.

Ø Some row materials were available locally like cotton, wood, soil etc.

Ø But many thing they brought from distant lands

§  Copper from Rajasthan and Oman, Iran.

§  Tin from Afghanistan and Iran (To mix with copper to get Bronze)

§  Gold  from present-day Karnataka.

§  Precious stones from present-day Gujarat, Iran and Afghanistan

 

v FOOD FOR THE PEOPLE

Ø Archaeologist found the evidence that they grew wheat, barley, pulses, peas, nee, sesame, linseed and mustard.

Ø A tool called plough was used to dig the earth and Irrigation also used.

Ø Animals like cattle, sheep, goat and buffalo reared by these people Water and pastureland available around settlements.

Ø They also collected fruits like ber, caught fish and hunted wild animals like antilope.

Ø The people who live in rural areas supplied these things to the city people.

 

v CLOSER LOOK- DHOLAVIRA

Ø The city of Dholavira was located on Khadir Beyt (also spelled as Bet) in the Rann of Kutch IN Gujarat.

Ø Unlike other cities it was divided into three parts and surrounded with massive stone walls.

Ø Archaeologists found a large open area from this settlement, where public ceremonies could be held.

Ø Large letters of the Harappan script also found from here.

v CLOSER LOOK- LOTHAL

Ø The city of Lothal stood beside a tributary of the Sabarmati, in Gujarat, close to the Gulf of Khambat.

Ø This was an important centre for making objects out of stone, shell and metal.

Ø There was also a store house in the city.

Ø Many seals and sealings (the impression of seals on clay) were found from here.

Ø This was a dockyard where things were sent and brought to other land through boats and ships.

v THE MYSTRY- END OF THESE CITIES

Ø Around  3900 years ago the evidence of some changes founded by archaeologists as

§  People stopped living in many of the cities.

§  Writing, seals and weights were no longer used.

§  Raw materials brought from long distances became rare.

§  The garbage piled up in streets and the drainage system broke down.

§  Less impressive houses were built, even over the streets

Ø So the scholars tried to find the reason of these changes. They gave different opinion about these changes

§  Some scholars suggest that these changes occurred due to dried up of rivers.

§  Others suggest it happened due to deforestation.

§  May be large herds of cattle, sheep and goat may have destroyed the green cover.

§  In some areas they found the evidence of flood also.

§  But none of these reasons can explain the end of all the cities because even today we are not able to read the scripts of Harappan.

v TERMS-

Ø Bronze: The alloy of tin and copper is called bronze.

Ø Citadel: The part to the west of most cities was small but high in comparison to the eastern part. This part is called the citadel.

Ø Crafts-Persons: Men and women who made all kinds of things-either in their own homes or in special workshops were the crafts-persons.

Ø Lower Town: The eastern part of the cities is referred to as the lower town.

Ø Plough: A new tool in the Harappan cities which was used to dig the earth for turning soil and planting seeds was the plough.

Ø Raw materials: Substances that are either found naturally or produced by farmers/ herders are called raw materials: Raw materials are used to manufacture other materials.

 

 


1 comment:

  1. Amazing thanks a lot it was sooooo helpful to me and hope may be for all thanks again. God bless u

    ReplyDelete

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